Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Of them) of the hypocrites (is he who saith) the reference here is to Jadd Ibn Qays: (Grant me leave) to stay at home (and tempt me not) by the women of Historic Syria. (Surely it is into temptation) idolatry and hypocrisy (that they (thus) have fallen. Lo! Hell is all around) will be all around (the disbelievers) on the Day of Judgement.
And there are some of them who say, ‘Grant me leave, to stay behind, and do not lead me into temptation’: this was al-Jadd b. Qays, to whom the Prophet (s) said, ‘Will you do battle against the Byzantines?’, and to which he replied, ‘I am infatuated with women, and I fear that if I were to see these Byzantine women, I shall not be able to stay away from them and be led into temptation’. God, exalted be He, says: Surely they have [already] fallen into temptation!, by staying behind (a variant reading [for saqatū, ‘they have fallen’] has [the singular form] saqat, ‘he has fallen’). And surely Hell shall encompass the disbelievers, for whom there shall be no escape therefrom.
(and put me not into trial.), if I go with you and see the women of the Romans. Allah, the Exalted, replied,
أَلا فِى الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُواْ
(Surely, they have fallen into trial) because of the statement they uttered. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Az-Zuhri, Yazid bin Ruwman, `Abdullah bin Abi Bakr, `Asim bin Qatadah and several others that they said, "The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Jadd bin Qays from Bani Salimah,
(`Would you like to fight the yellow ones (Romans) this year) He said, `O Allah's Messenger! Give me permission (to remain behind) and do not cause Fitnah for me. By Allah! My people know that there is not a man who is more fond of women than I. I fear that if I see the women of the yellow ones, I would not be patient.' The Messenger of Allah turned away from him and said,
«قَدْ أَذِنْتُ لَك»
(I give you permission.) In Al-Jadd's case, this Ayah was revealed,
(And among them is he who says: "Grant me leave and put me not into trial.'') Therefore, Allah says that the Fitnah that he fell into because of not joining the Messenger of Allah (in Jihad) and preferring his safety to the safety of the Messenger is worse than the Fitnah that he falsely claimed to fear.'' It was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Al-Jadd bin Qays, who was among the chiefs of Bani Salimah. It is also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah asked,
«مَنْ سَيِّدُكُمْ يَا بَنِي سَلَمَةَ؟»
(Who is your chief, O Bani Salamah) They said, "Al-Jadd bin Qays, although we consider him a miser.'' The Messenger of Allah said,
(There is not a disease worse than stinginess! Therefore, your chief is the white young man with curly hair, Bishr bin Al-Bara' bin Ma'rur.) Allah said next,
وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَـفِرِينَ
(And verily, Hell is surrounding the disbelievers.) and they will never be able to avoid, avert, or escape from it.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Allah held them back for He did not like that they should join Jihad unwillingly without any sincere intention for it. As they had no mind to make sacrifices to exalt the cause of Islam, and, therefore, would have taken part in it. half-heartedly to escape the taunts of the Muslims or to create mischief, this would have resulted in a greater evil, as has been stated explicitly in the next verse (48).
(Of them is he who saith: Grant me leave (to stay at home) and tempt me not…) [9:49]. This was revealed about Jadd ibn Qays the hypocrite. This is because when the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, was preparing for the Battle of Tabuk, he said to him: “O Abu Wahb, would you not like to have scores of Byzantine women and men as concubines and servants?” He said: “O Messenger of Allah, my people know that I am very fond of women and, if I see the women of the Byzantines, I fear I will not be able to hold back. So do not tempt me by them, and allow me not to join and, instead, I will assist you with my wealth”. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, turned away from him and said: “I allow you”, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse. When this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, asked Banu Salamah, the tribe of al-Jadd: “Who is your master, O Banu Salamah?” They said: “Al-Jadd ibn Qays except that he is a miser and a coward”. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, responded: “Is there any sickness worse than miserliness? Rather, your master is the fair, curly-haired youth: Bishr ibn al-Bara' ibn Ma'rur”. Hasan ibn Thabit composed about him the following lines: And the Messenger of Allah said and truth catches up With him about whom he said: who do you consider as your master. We said: Jadd ibn Qays even though We consider him a miser and a troublesome one. He said: what is worse than that With which you reproach Jadd and which make a hand needy. And he appointed Bishr ibn al-Bara' as chief for his magnanimity And it is befitting that Bishr who answers others' call be appointed as chief. When a delegation comes to him, he spends his wealth And says: take it for tomorrow it will return. The verses after this one verse and up to Allah's words (The alms are only for the poor and the needy) [9:60] are about the hypocrites.