The Quran

Commentaries for 9.3

Al Tawba (Immunity) - التوبة

9.3 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And a proclamation from Allah) and this is a declaration from Allah (and His messenger to all men on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage) on the day of immolation (that Allah is free from obligation to the idolaters) their religion, and the treaties they broke, (and (so is) His messenger) he is also free from obligation to them. (So, if ye repent) from idolatry and believe in Allah and Muhammad (pbuh) as well as in the Qur'an, (it will be better for you) than idolatry; (but if ye are averse) to faith and repentance, (then know) O idolaters (that ye cannot escape Allah) you cannot escape His punishment. (Give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom to those who disbelieve) i.e. that they will be killed after the elapse of four months.
9.3 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
A proclamation, a notification, from God and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage, the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr), that God is free from obligation to the idolaters, and their pacts, and [so is] His Messenger, also free from obligation: in that same year, year 9 [of the Hijra], the Prophet (s) sent forth ‘Alī, who proclaimed these verses on the Day of Sacrifice at Minā, and also [he proclaimed] that after this year no idolater will [be allowed to] make pilgrimage or circumambulate the House naked, as reported by al-Bukhārī. So, if you repent, of unbelief, it will be better for you; but if you turn away, from belief, then know that you cannot escape God. And give tidings to — inform — those who disbelieve of a painful chastisement, namely, [of] slaughter or capture in this world, and of [punishment in] the Fire in the Hereafter.
9.3 Kashani - Kashani
A proclamation, an apprising, from God and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage, that is, at the moment of the manifestation of the union of the Essence in the form of differentiation, as has already been mentioned; that God is free from obligation to the idolaters, and [so is] His Messenger, in reality, and so the outward conforms to the inward.
9.3 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Allah says, this is a declaration,
مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
(from Allah and His Messenger), and a preface warning to the people,
يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الاٌّكْبَرِ
(on the greatest day of Hajj), the day of Sacrifice, the best and most apparent day of the Hajj rituals, during which the largest gathering confers.
أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِىءٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ
(that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikin and so is His Messenger.) also free from all obligations to them. Allah next invites the idolators to repent,
فَإِن تُبْتُمْ
(So if you repent), from the misguidance and Shirk you indulge in,
فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ
(it is better for you, but if you turn away), and persist on your ways,
فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِى اللَّهِ
(then know that you cannot escape Allah) Rather, Allah is capable over you, and you are all in His grasp, under His power and will,
وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
(And give tidings of a painful torment for those who disbelieve) earning them disgrace and affliction in this life and the torment of chains and barbed iron bars in the Hereafter. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "Abu Bakr sent me during that Hajj with those dispatched on the day of Sacrifice to declare in Mina that no Mushrik will be allowed to attend Hajj after that year, nor will a naked person be allowed to perform Tawaf.'' Humayd said, "The Prophet then sent `Ali bin Abi Talib and commanded him to announce Bara'ah.'' Abu Hurayrah said, "Ali publicized Bara'ah with us to the gathering in Mina on the day of Sacrifice, declaring that no Mushrik shall perform Hajj after that year, nor shall a naked person perform Tawaf around the House.'' Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith the this narration of which, Abu Hurayrah said, "On the day of Nahr, Abu Bakr sent me along with other announcers to Mina to make a public announcement that `No pagan is allowed to perform Hajj after this year, and no naked person is allowed to perform the Tawaf around the Ka`bah.' Abu Bakr was leading the people in that Hajj season, and in the year of `The Farewell Hajj' when the Prophet performed Hajj, no Mushrik performed Hajj.''' This is the narration that Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book on Jihad. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported a narration from Abu Ja`far Muhammad bin `Ali bin Al-Husayn who said, "When Bara'ah was revealed to Allah's Messenger, and he had sent Abu Bakr to oversee the Hajj rites for the people, he was asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Why not send this message to Abu Bakr' So he said,
«لَا يُؤَدِّي عَنِّي إِلَّا رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي»
(It will not be accepted to have been from me if it is not from a man from my family.) Then he called for `Ali and said to him,
«اخْرُجْ بِهذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ مِنْ صَدْرِ بَرَاءَةَ وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ إِذَا اجْتَمَعُوا بِمِنًى، أَنَّهُ لَا يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ كَافِرٌ، وَلَا يَحُجُّ بَعْدَ الْعَامِ مُشْرِكٌ، وَلَا يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ عُرْيَانٌ، وَمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلّم عَهْدٌ فَهُوَ لَهُ إِلَى مُدَّتِه»
(Take this section from the beginning of Bara'ah and proclaim to the people on the day of the Sacrifice while they are gathered at Mina that no disbeliever will enter Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj after the year, there will be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger, then it shall be valid until the time of its expiration.) `Ali rode the camel of Allah's Messenger named Al-`Adba' until he caught up with Abu Bakr in route. When Abu Bakr saw him he said, `Are you here as a commander or a follower.' `Ali replied, `A follower.' They continued on. Abu Bakr lead the people in Hajj while the Arabs were camping in their normal locations from Jahiliyyah. On the day of Sacrifice, `Ali bin Abi Talib stood and proclaimed, `O people! No disbeliever will be admitted into Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj next year, there shall be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger, then it shall be valid until its time of expiration.' So no idolator performed Hajj after that year, Tawaf around the House while naked ceased. Then they returned to Allah's Messenger. So this was the declaration of innocence, whoever among the idolators had no treaty, then he had a treaty of peace for one year, if he had a particular treaty, then it was valid until its date of expiration.''
9.3-4 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Hajj-i-akbar refers to the 10th of Zil-Hajjah and is also known as Yaum-un-Nahr. This has been explained by the Holy Prophet in an authentic Tradition. On the 10th of Zil-Hajjah, during the last Haj of the Holy Prophet, he asked the people, "What is this day?" The people answered, "It is the day of Sacrifice. "
The Holy Prophet said, "This is the day of Hajj-i-akbar" Here the word Hajj-i-akbar (Great Pilgrimage) has been used in contrast to Hajj-i-asghar which the Arabs used for 'Umrah'. Thus, the Haj which is performed in the prescribed dates of Zil-Haj is called Hajj-i-akbar.
"......you also should observe the treaties with such people" who do not violate them, for your violation in such cases shall be against piety. And Muslims should remain pious under all circumstances "for Allah loves the pious people" only.