Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And We wrote for him, upon the tablets, the lesson) the prohibition (to be drawn from all things and the explanation of all things) of the lawful and the unlawful, commands and prohibitions, (then (bade him): Hold it fast) act upon it seriously and diligently; (and command your people (saying): Take the better (course made clear) therein) act upon that which is unambiguous and believe in that which is ambiguous. (I shall show thee the abode of evil-livers) the abode of the transgressors which is hell; it is also said that this refers to Iraq, just as it is said that it refers to Egypt.
And in the tablets We wrote for him of everything an admonition, and a detailing of everything. “So take hold of them with strength, and command thy people to take their most beautiful. I shall show you the abode of the ungodly.”
It has been mentioned in the traditions that one of the admonitions that the Exalted Lord wrote in the tablets for Moses and gave to him was this: “O Moses, if you want to be respected at the threshold of My exaltation and be specified for My nearness and proximity, act beautifully toward orphans and do not abase the poor. O Moses, I am the caresser and well-wisher of orphans, and the lovingly kind and bestower of bounty on the poor. Caress those whom I caress, and do not drive away those whom I call.”
MuṣṬafā said about the poor, “The poor who remain patient will be the sitting companions of God on the Day of Resurrection.” Concerning the orphans he said, “When an orphan weeps, the Throne of the All-Merciful trembles at his weeping, so God says, 'If someone makes him approving, I will make that person approving.'”
“O Moses, if you want Me to brag about you among the angels, be without harm and keep stones and thorns away from the road of the submitted.”
[MuṣṬafā said,] “Faith has seventy-some branches, the highest of which is 'There is no god but God,' and the least of which is removal of harm from the road.”
“O Moses, if you want Me to answer your supplications, deal with people beautifully, learn knowledge, and teach others knowledge, for I have honored the knowers by giving them knowledge. For them I make the dust sweet, I illuminate and expand their graves, and tomorrow I will muster them among the troops of the prophets.”
MuṣṬafā said, “Do you know what Gabriel said to me? He said, 'O MuḤammad, do not count as lowly a servant whom God has given knowledge, for God did not count him as lowly when He gave him knowledge. Surely God will gather the knowers in one place and say to them, 'I have
deposited My knowledge with you only because of a good that I desired for you. I forgive you for what has come forth from you.
And in the tablets We wrote for him. Among God's caresses and gentlenesses to Moses, one is that He kept him in the station of whispered prayer and wrote the Torah for him on the tablets, such that the sound of the pen's moving on the tablet reached Moses' ears. “O Moses, today be content with My name! Gaze on My writing so that it may be a consolation for you. 'When someone is prevented from gazing, he is consoled by traces.' O Moses, in the perfection of My wisdom I have decreed that as long as MuḤammad has not seen Me and MuḤammad's community has not seen Me, I will not show the vision to anyone. I will not change or alter My decree. With Me the word does not change [50:29].”
Moses said, “Lord God, who are the community of MuḤammad?”
He said, “The best community brought forth to mankind, who command the honorable, prohibit the improper, and have faith [3:110] in both the first book and the last book. They will fight the folk of misguidance until they fight the one-eyed Dajjāl. They are those who ask for response and are given response. To them belong the interceders and those interceded for. Their scriptures are in their breasts. In their prayers they stand in rows like the angels. Their voices in their places of prostration are like the droning of bees. We have honored them and chosen them. Among them are wrongdoers to themselves, among them are moderate, and among them are preceders in good deeds by God's leave [35:32].”
Moses said, “So make them my community.” He said, “They are the community of AḤmad.”
So take hold of them with strength. This is an exalted allusion that taking to the utmost is evidence of proximity. Then He says, “And command thy people to take their most beautiful.” There is a difference between the former taking and the latter taking. The former is taking from the Real, and the latter is taking from creation. The former is Moses' taking from the Patron, and the latter is the people's taking from Moses. The former taking is by way of the realization of nearness and the confirmation of union, and the latter taking is by way of accepting to serve and clinging to obedience.
I shall show you the abode of the ungodly. In the tongue of the folk of recognition, the abode of the ungodly alludes to the commanding soul and the ruined heart. The commanding soul is the source of appetites, and the ruined heart is the quarry of heedlessness. Just as no one sits and takes ease in a ruined house, so also obedience does not dwell in a ruined heart, nor does any good settle down there, nor does any worship come forth from it. We seek refuge in God from the depths of wretchedness!
And We inscribed for him in the Tablets, that is, the Tablets of the Torah — these were made from the Lote-tree of Paradise, or of chrysolite or emerald, and they were either seven or ten — about all things, one needs in religion, as an admonition and a detailing, an explanation, of all things (li-kulli shay’in substitutes for the previous genitive construction [min kulli shay’, ‘about all things’]). ‘Take it then (there is an implicit qulnā, ‘We said’, before this [fa-kudhhā, ‘take it then’]) firmly, seriously and earnestly, and enjoin your people to adhere to the fairest [precepts] in it. I shall show you the abode of the wicked, [of] Pharaoh and his followers, and that is Egypt, that you may take an example from them.
[And We inscribed for him] in the Tablets, the Tablets being the differentiations of Moses's existence in the way of his spirit, his heart, his intellect, his consideration and his imagination. His casting them down in anger represents his being distracted from these [differentiations] and [his] neglecting of the judgements contained therein, just as one of us would judge to forbear virtuously and endure hurt then become forgetful when overcome by anger and not remember anything of his intellect in terms of his deed upon the manifestation of his soul. 'Take it then firmly, that is, resolutely, so that you might be of the resolute [from among the messengers] [cf. Q. 46:35], and enjoin your people to adhere to the fairest [precepts] in it, that is, to [adhere to] those things [in them] that require resolve as opposed to the dispensations. I shall show you the abode of the wicked, that is, the sequel for those who do not adhere to them.
Allah states that He spoke to Musa directly and informed him that He has chosen him above the people of his time, by His Message and by speaking to him. Here we should mention that there is no doubt that Muhammad is the chief of all the Children of Adam, the earlier and later ones among them. This is why Allah has chosen him to be the Final and Last Prophet and Messenger, whose Law shall remain dominant and valid until the commencement of the Last Hour. Muhammad's followers are more numerous than the followers of all Prophets and Messengers. After Muhammad, the next in rank of honor and virtue is Ibrahim upon him be peace,, then Musa, son of `Imran, who spoke to the Most Beneficent directly. Allah commanded Musa, saying,
فَخُذْ مَآ ءاتَيْتُكَ
(So hold to that which I have given you), of My Speech and conversation with you,
وَكُنْ مِّنَ الشَّـكِرِينَ
(and be of the grateful), for it and do not ask for what is beyond your capacity to bear. Allah stated that He has written lessons and exhortation for all things and explanations for all things on the Tablets. It was said that in the Tablets, Allah wrote advice and the details of the commandments for lawful and prohibited matters. The Tablets contained the Tawrah, that Allah described;
(And indeed We gave Musa -- after We had destroyed the generations of old -- the Scripture as an enlightenment for mankind)28: 43. It was also said that Allah gave Musa the Tablets before the Tawrah, and Allah knows best. Allah said next,
(Hold unto these with firmness), be firm on the obedience,
وَأْمُرْ قَوْمَكَ يَأْخُذُواْ بِأَحْسَنِهَا
(and enjoin your people to take the better therein.) Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, "Abu Sa`d narrated to us from `Ikrimah from Ibn `Abbas that "Musa, peace be upon him, was commanded to adhere to the toughest of what was ordained on his people.'' Allah's statement,
سَأُوْرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَـسِقِينَ
(I shall show you the home of the rebellious), means, you will witness the recompense of those who defy My order and deviate from My obedience, the destruction, demise and utter loss they will suffer.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The Bible says that these two tablets were slabs of stone. Both the Qur'an and the Bible ascribe the writing upon them to Allah. We have, however, no specific source to say how that was done. Therefore we cannot say with certainty whether the writing was inscribed on the tablets directly by Allah or through the agency of an angel or by Prophet Moses. (Please compare this with Exodus 31: 18, 32: 15-16, Deut. 5: 6-22).
That is, "The Divine precepts and instructions should be followed in their direct and plain meanings, that can be grasped by a man of average intelligence, who has a pure heart and pure intentions." This condition has been attached lest one should confuse them with the hair-splitting of those who, by their legal quibblings, are able to devise ways of crookedness, deceit and mischief out of the plain words of the Divine Commandments.
That is, "In your onward march, you will pass through the ruins of the homes of those who disobeyed the Divine Law and discarded the way of Allah's worship and obedience and persisted in the paths of error. When you see these things you will yourselves know the end of the people who adopt such ways. "
That is, "This is My law: such people as behave haughtily cannot take any warning from any exemplary sign and cannot learn any lesson from anything that may teach a lesson. "
According to the Qur'an, a person behaves haughtily who considers himself above submission to Allah and becomes heedless of His Commandments and behaves in a way as if he was not a servant of Allah and Allah was not his Lord. Obviously such an arrogance is not based on any rightful claim, for no servant has any right to behave as if he were not His servant, when he lives on Allah's earth. That is why Allah says, who without any right behave haughtily."
".... his deeds became vain," and produced no good result and were useless and worthless, because these did not satisfy the two elementary conditions that make human deeds worthwhile. First, these should be performed in accordance with the Divine Law. Secondly, the object of these acts and deeds should be success in the Hereafter and not mere success in this world. If these two conditions are not fulfilled in the performance of any deed, it shall become vain. Obviously anything done without giving heed to or in defiance of the Divine Guidance does not deserve any reward from Him, for his case is the same as that of a usurper of land, who exploits it against the owner's will. He does not deserve anything but severe punishment for this wrongful possession. Though he may benefit from it as long as the real owner connives at his audacity, he knows that he will be deprived of it when he is dispossessed of it. And there is no reason why (and he himself does not expect that) any portion of its produce should go to him, after the real owner takes possession of his land from the usurper.