The Quran

Commentaries for 7.13

Al Araf (The heights) - الأعراف

7.13 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(He said) Allah said to him: (Then go down hence!) go down from heaven; it is also said this means: come out of angelic form. (It is not for thee) you ought not (to show pride here) demonstrate pride, in the form of an angel, to the Children of Adam, (so go forth!) leave your angelic form; it is also said that this means: go forth from the earth; (Lo! thou art of those degraded) you are of those who are humiliated in that you are punished.
7.13 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Said He, ‘Then go down from it, that is, from the Garden — it is also said, [go down] from the heavens — it is not, right, for you to show pride here, so go forth, out of it! Surely you are among the abased!’, the contemptible!
7.13 Kashani - Kashani
[Said He, 'Then go down from it] - it is not for you to be haughty here, since to act with haughtiness, which is to feign a quality that one does not have, is of the attributes of the soul. Thus it is not befitting of the spiritual presence which you claim to belong to [by right] by your acting superior to the intellect: begone [from here]. You are not from among its [rightful] inhabitants, those who are the glorious ones, [rather] you are surely among the abased!', from among the egocentric faculties that adhere to the lower aspect, which shall be forever ignominious by virtue of its adherence to [physical] bodies,
7.13-15 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا
(Get down from this) "because you defied My command and disobeyed Me. Get out, it is not for you to be arrogant here,'' in Paradise, according to the scholars of Tafsir. It could also refer to particular status which he held in the utmost highs. Allah said to Iblis,
فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّـغِرِينَ
(Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.) as just recompense for his ill intentions, by giving him the opposite of what he intended (arrogance). This is when the cursed one remembered and asked for respite until the Day of Judgment,
قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرْنِى إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ - قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنظَرِينَ
(Then allow me respite till the Day they are raised up. (Allah) said: "Then you are of those respited.'') 15: 36-37 Allah gave Shaytan what he asked for out of His wisdom, being His decision and decree, that is never prevented or resisted. Surely, none can avert His decision, and He is swift in reckoning.
7.11-17 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Please see also vv. 30-36, Al-Baqarah, for comparison.
The wording of v. 34, Al-Baqarah, might have given rise to the doubt that the command given to the angels to bow before Adam was meant for the person of Adam, but the wording of this verse clears that doubt. Here the words preceding the Command show that the angels were to bow before Adam as representative of the whole of mankind.
As regards the creation of mankind, first of all, Allah made a plan for it; then He got ready the necessary material for this purpose; then He gave it the human shape, and when Adam carne into being in the shape of a living man, then the angels were commanded to bow before him, who was the representative of the whole human race.
The above explanation of the verse is based on some other passages of the Qur'an. For instance, let us examine vv. 71-72 of Surah sad:
"Just recall the time when your Lord said to the angels, 'I am going to create a man of clay when I perfect it in every way, and blow into it of My Spirit, all of you should bow down before hire'."
Here, too, the same three stages, the creation, the perfection and bringing to life, have been mentioned in a different way. First of all, a man of clay was created, then he was given a shape and proportionate limbs and faculties and then he was brought to life as Adam by the blowing of His Spirit into it.
Let us also examine vv. 28-29 of Al-Hijra
"Just recall the time when your Lord said to the angels, 'I am going to create a man out of clay of molded mud W hen I perfect it in every way and blow into it of My Spirit, then all of you should bow down before hint'. "
It is very difficult for us to understand the exact nature of the creation of the first man, for we cannot comprehend fully how man was made from the material of the earth, how he was shaped and perfected and how the Spirit was blown into him. However, it is quite clear that the story of man's creation as stated in the Qur'an is quite different from Darwinism. According to this doctrine, the evolution of man has taken place from a non-human and semi-human state by a continuous process of elimination, selection and adaptation, and in this there is no line of demarcation to denote the end of the non-human state and the beginning of the species of `man' as such. On the contrary, the Qur'an says that man started his life as man; that in the entire history he has absolutely no connection whatsoever with any non-human state. Allah created him as man from the very first day of his life on the earth and endowed him with wisdom and enlightenment from the very start of iris life.
The above two points of view of the story of man lead to two opposite conceptions in regard to man. The adoption of the Darwinian conception reduces man to one of the species of animals: therefore all the principles of human life (including the moral principles) will be based on the principles governing animal life and any animal-like behavior of his will be regarded as natural. Then the only difference between human beings and animals will be the ability of the former to make use of instruments for the provision of their necessities and luxuries. On the contrary, the adoption of the Divine conception raises him from the low position of animal to the high position of man, His noblest creation. Then he is no longer a mere talking animal or a social animal but the vicegerent of Allah on this earth. Then what will distinguish him from all other creatures will not be his faculty of speech and his social life, but his moral responsibilities and the trust of the power delegated to him by Allah and his accountability for these to Him. This will change man's entire outlook about his life on this earth and will demand a different philosophy of life and system of morality, law and civilization. Then man will, of his own accord, look upwards in search of the principles of life and not downwards.
Now let us consider an objection to the Divine conception of man howsoever high sounding this may be from the moral and psychological points of view: how can we reject the scientific Darwinian conception merely on this account? In answer to this, we put a counter question: has the Darwinian theory of the `Origin of Species' been scientifically proved? Only those people who have a cursory knowledge of science may be suffering from this misunderstanding that the theory of evolution has been scientifically proved to be true, but the majority of the scientists know that it is merely a theory in spite of its high-sounding technical terms, and that the arguments in favor of this are not conclusive, but merely hypothetical. The most that can be said in this connection is that both the theories of the creation of the species may be equally possible. Their creation might have taken place according to the Darwinian theory of evolution, or each of the species might have been brought into existence individually.