Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(O ye who believe) in Muhammad (pbuh) and the Qur'an! (Ward off from yourselves) and your folks (and your families) and wives and children (a Fire) He says: teach them good manners and make them learn goodness, and by doing so you will save them from the Fire (whereof the fuel is men and stones) of sulphur which is the hottest of stones, (over which) over the Fire (are set angels) i.e. the angels in charge of the Fire (strong) huge, (severe) very strong, (who resist not Allah in that which He commandeth them) regarding the chastisement of the dwellers of the Fire, (but do) i.e. the angels in charge of the Fire (that which they are commanded.
O you who believe! Guard yourselves and your families, by enjoining obedience to God, against a Fire whose fuel is, disbelieving, people and stones, such as those idols of theirs made of that [stone] — the meaning is that it is extremely hot, fuelled by the above-mentioned, unlike the fire of this world which is fuelled by wood and the like — over which stand angels, its keepers — numbering nineteen as will be stated in [sūrat] al-Muddaththir [Q. 74:30] — stern, a sternness of the heart, mighty, in [their power of] assault, who do not disobey God in what He commands them (mā amarahum is a substitution for His Majesty [‘God’]), in other words, they do not disobey the command of God, but do what they are commanded — this is [reiterated] for emphasis; the verse is meant as a threat to deter believers from apostatising and for hypocrites who believe only with their tongues and not with their hearts.
Teaching One's Family the Religion and Good Behavior
`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas;
قُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَاراً
(Protect yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell)) He said, "Work in the obedience of Allah, avoid disobedience of Allah and order your families to remember Allah, then Allah will save you from the Fire.'' Mujahid also commented on:
قُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَاراً
(Protect yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell)) saying, "Have Taqwa of Allah and order your family to have Taqwa of Him.'' Qatadah said, "He commands obedience to Allah, to not disobey Allah, he orders his family to obey His orders and helps them to act upon His orders. When one sees disobedience, he stops them and forbids them from doing it.'' Similar was said by Ad-Dahhak and Muqatil; "It is an obligation for the Muslim to teach his near family members, and his male and female slaves what Allah has made obligatory for them and what Allah has forbidden for them.'' There is a Hadith that confirms the meaning of this Ayah. Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ar-Rabi` bin Sabrah said that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Order the children to pray when they reach the age of seven and when they reach the age of ten, discipline them for (not performing) it.) This is the narration that Abu Dawud collected; At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan.''
Fuel for Hell and a Description of its Angels
وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ
(whose fuel is men and stones,) indicating that the Children of Adam will be fuel for the Fire that will feed it,
(and stones) in reference to the idols that were worshipped, just as Allah said in another Ayah,
(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!) (21:98) `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Mujahid, Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir and As-Suddi said that these are sulfur stones that are more putrid than rotten corpses, according to Mujahid. Allah's statement,
عَلَيْهَا مَلَـئِكَةٌ غِلاَظٌ شِدَادٌ
(over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe,) means, their nature of behavior is stern, because the mercy has been taken out of their hearts for those who disbelieve in Allah,
(severe) meaning, their structure is powerful, strong and frightening,
(who disobey not the commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.) meaning, whatever Allah commands them, they rush to obey Him, without delay for even a twinkling of an eye. They are able to fulfill the command; they are called Az-Zabaniyah, meaning, the keepers and guards of Hell, may Allah give us shelter from them.
No Excuse will be accepted from the Disbeliever on the Day of Resurrection
(O you who disbelieve! Make no excuses this Day! You are being requited only for what you used to do.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, the disbeliever will be told, "Do not offer any excuse this Day, because it will not be accepted from you; you will only be recompensed for what you used to do. Today, you will receive the punishment for your actions.''
(O you who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance!) meaning, a true, firm repentance that erases the evil sins that preceded it and mend the shortcoming of the repenting person, encouraging and directing him to quit the evil that he used to do. Allah said,
(They will say:"Our Lord! Keep perfect our light for us and grant us forgiveness. Verily, You are Able to do all things.'') Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and Al-Hasan Al-Basri and other said, "This is the statement that the believers will say on the Day of Resurrection, when they witness the light of the hypocrites being extinguished.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that a man from the tribe of Banu Kinanah said, "I prayed behind the Messenger of Allah during the year of the Conquest (of Makkah), and heard him say,
«اللْهُمَّ لَا تُخْزِنِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة»
(O Allah! Please, do not disgrace me on the Day of Resurrection.)''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This verse tells that a person's responsibility is not confined to making effort to save himself from the punishment of God but it is also his responsibility that he should so educate and train to the best of his ability members of his family also to become Allah's favorite servants, who have been entrusted to his care in the natural process of life; and if they might be following a path to Hell, he should try. as far as he can, to correct them. His concern should not only be that his children should lead a happy and prosperous life in the world but; more than that, he should be anxious to see that they do not become fuel of Hell in the Hereafter. According to a tradition reported in Bukhiiri by Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Umar, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "Each one of you is a herdsman and is accountable with regard to his herd: the ruler is a herdsman and is accountable with regard to his subjects; the man is a herdsman of his family and is accountable with regard to them; and the woman is a herdsman of her husband's house and his children and is accountable with regard to them."
Whose fuel...stone" probably implies coal. Ibn Mas' ud, Ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Suddi say that this will be brimstone.
That is, they will enforce on every culprit precisely the same punishment which they will be commanded to enforce on him without making any alteration in it, or showing any pity for him.
The style of both these verses contains a severe warning for the Muslims. In the first verse the Muslims have been addressed and told that they should save themselves and their households from the dreadful punishment; in the second that this will be said to the disbelievers while subjecting them to punishment in Hell. This by itself gives the meaning that the Muslims in the world should avoid adopting that conduct and behavior in consequence of which they may have to meet with the fate as the disbelievers in the Hereafter.