Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(No calamity befalleth) you in your bodies, families or wealth (save by Allah's leave) and decree. (And whosoever believeth in Allah) seeing that the calamity is from Allah, (He guideth his heart) to have contentment and patience; it is also said: when Allah gives him, he is thankful and when Allah tries him, he is patient and when he wrongs someone, he asks for forgiveness, and when a calamity befalls him, he says: “verily we are unto Allah, and unto Him we shall return”. (And Allah is Knower of all things) that befall you, whether it is a calamity or something else.
No affliction strikes except by the leave of God, by His decree. And whoever believes in God, in His saying that every affliction is by His decreeing [it], He will guide his heart, to endure it [patiently]. And God is Knower of all things.
(and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.) meaning, whoever suffered an affliction and he knew that it occurred by Allah's judgement and decree, and he patiently abides, awaiting Allah's reward, then Allah guides his heart, and will compensate him for his loss in this life by granting guidance to his heart and certainty in faith. Allah will replace whatever he lost for Him with the same or what is better. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas,
وَمَن يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ
(and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart.) "Allah will guide his heart to certainty. Therefore, he will know that what reached him would not have missed him and what has missed him would not have reached him.'' There is an agreed upon Hadith that Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected and which states,
(Amazing is the believer: There is no decree that Allah writes for him, but is better for him. If an affliction strikes him, he is patient and this is better for him. If a bounty is granted to him, he is thankful and this is better for him. This trait is only for the faithful believer.)
The Order to obey Allah and His Messenger
وَأَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ
(Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger;) Allah commands obedience to Him and to His Messenger in all that His legislates and in implementing His orders. Allah also forbids one from all that His Messenger forbids and prohibits. Allah the Exalted said,
(but if you turn away, then the duty of Our Messenger is only to convey clearly.) meaning, `if you refrain from abiding by the faith, then the Messenger's mission is to convey and your mission is to hear and obey. 'Az-Zuhri said, "From Allah comes the Message, its deliverance is up to the Messenger, and the adherence is up to us.''
Allah states that He is the One, Whom all creations need and seek, the One other than Whom there is no (true) God.
(Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa. And in Allah therefore let the believers put their trust.) So, He first informs about Tawhid and its meaning. The implied meaning is to single Him out for deifica- tion, being purely devoted to Him, and relying upon Him, as He said;
(The Lord of the east and the west; La ilaha illa Huwa. So take Him alone as Trustee.) (73:9)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The discourse now turns to the believers. While reading this passage one should keep in mind the fact that at the time when these verses were revealed. Muslims were passing through great hardships After years of persecution at Makkah they had left their home and emigrated to Madinah, where the sincere Muslims who had given them refuge had been doubly burdened. On the one hand, they had to support and sustain hundreds of the emigrants who were coming to them from different parts of Arabia; on the other they had become the target of the persecution and enmity of the enemies of Islam of entire Arabia.
This same theme has also occurred in AI-Hadid: 22-23 above and we have explained it in E.N.'s 39 to 42 of the commentary of the Surah 'The same circumstances under which this thing was said there and the same object for which it was said underlie the verses here as well. This means that afflictions and hardships do not descend of themselves, nor has anyone in the world the power to cause an affliction to descend on anyone he may like by his own authority. AII calamities wholly depend on Allah's leave: He may allow an affliction to descend upon someone or may disallow it, And Allah's leave in any cast is based on one or other wisdom, directed to some ultimate good, which man neither knows, nor can understand.
That is, "It is only belief in Allah which keeps man on the right path even in the face of an onslaught of afflictions and does not let him waver under the most trying circumstances. The one whose heart is devoid of belief either looks upon afflictions as a result of mere chance, or thinks they are brought or prevented by worldly powers, or considers them to be the work of such imaginary powers which human superstition regards as potent in bringing good and causing evil, or believes that God is the real Doer of everything but does not believe so truly and sincerely, In all these different cases mart degenerates. He endures the affliction. but then yields and bows to every false god, accepts, every humiliation, is ready to do any mean thing and commit any wrong act he does not hesitate to abuse God, even commit suicide. On the contrary, the heart of the person who knows and believes sincerely that everything is in the hand of Allah, that He alone in the Master and Ruler of the universe that only by His permission can an affliction befall and only by His command can it be averted, is blessed by Allah with the grace of patience and submission and of acquiescing in Divine will, and is granted the power to face every circumstance with determination and courage. Even under the most straitened circumstances the candle of the hope of Allah's bounty lights up his way and no affliction, however severe and trying, can dishearten him as to cause him to swerve from the right path, or how to falsehood, or invoke others than Allah for the redress of his grievances. Thus, every affliction opens up for him a new door to well-being and happiness and no affliction remains an affliction for him in actual fact but becomes in final result and analysis a blessing in disguise, for whether he falls a victim to it. or passes through if safely, in each case he emerges successful from the trial set him by his Lord. This same thing has been stated by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) in a Hadith which has been reported unanimously by all the reporters, saying: `Strange is the affair of the believer! Whatever Allah decrees for him is good for him: when an affliction befalls him, he endures it patiently, and this proves good for him; when he is blessed with prosperity, he thanks his Lord, and this too proves good for him. Such a good fortune only falls to the lot of a believer."
In this context this has two meanings: first, that Allah knows who really believes and what is the measure of his belief. So, on the basis of His knowledge He grants guidance only to that heart, which has belief in it, and grants it guidance precisely in accordance with the measure of belief. Another meaning also can be: that Allah is not unaware of the condition of His believing servants. He has not left them alone after having invited them to faith and subjected them at the same time to severe trials and temptations of the world. He knows exactly what hardships a believer is passing through in the world, and under what circumstances he is fulfilling the demands of his faith. Therefore, "O believers, you should rest assured that whatever affliction descends upon you by Allah's leave, in Allah's knowledge it must be directed to some ultimate good, which must be for your own well-being, for Allah is well-wisher of His believing servants: He does not will to subject them to afflictions and hardships without good reason."
In view of the context, it means: "Whatever the circumstances. good or bad. you should remain steadfast to obedience to Allah and His Messenger. But if under the pressure of hardships you turned away from obedience, you would only harm your own selves. The only responsibility of Our Messenger was to guide you to the right path, which the Messenger has fulfilled in the best way possible."
That is, "All Divine powers belong to Allah alone. No one else has any power to make or mar your destiny. He alone cat bring about a good time and He alone can avert a bad time. Therefore, whoever believes sincerely that Allah is One, has absolutely no other choice than to place his full trust in Him and to continue doing his duty as a believer with the conviction that goodness and well being only lie in the way that Allah has shown him. If he attains to success in this way, it will only he by Allah's help and leave; there is no other helper. And if he encounters difficulties, hardships, dangers and disasters in this way, Allah alone will rescue him, for there is no other rescuer beside Him."