Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And with Him are the keys of the invisible) the stores of the unseen: rain, vegetation, fruits, and the descent of punishment you asked for on the Day of Badr. (None but He knoweth them) no one knows the keys of the unseen: when the punishment for which you are impatient will come down on you. (And He knoweth what is in the land and the sea) of created beings and marvels; it is also said that this means: Allah knows what He destroys in the land and in the sea. (Not a leaf falleth) from a tree (but He knoweth it) He knows how many times it spins in the air before it falls, (not a grain amid the darkness of the earth) under a rock at the bottom of the earth except that He knows it, (naught of wet) i.e. water (or dry) steppe (but (it is noted) in a) written (clear record) all of it is in the Guarded Tablet: with their precise measure and time.
And with Him, exalted be He, are the keys of the Unseen, its treasure houses, or the paths that lead to knowledge of it; none but He knows them, and these are the five things mentioned in His saying: Surely God, He has knowledge of the Hour [and He sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs. And no soul knows what it has earned for the morrow; nor does any soul know in what land it will die. Truly God is Knowing, Aware, Q. 31:34], as reported by al-Bukhārī. He knows what is, happening, on land, [in] the deserts, and in the waters, [in] the towns along the rivers; and not a leaf (min waraqatin: min is extra) falls, but He knows it. Not a grain in the shadows of the earth, nothing of wet or dry ([this entire clause] wa-lā habbatin fī zulumāti l-ardi wa-lā ratbin wa-lā yābisin is a supplement to waraqatin, ‘a leaf’) but it is in a clear book, namely, the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). The exceptive clause [illā fī kitābin mubīn, ‘but it is in a clear book’] constitutes an inclusive substitution for the previous exceptive clause [illā ya‘lamuhā, ‘but He knows it’].
And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, to the end [of the verse]: know that the unseen is made up of levels, the first of which is the unseen of unseens which is the knowledge of God called first solicitude; then comes the unseen of the world of spirits which is the engraving in an all-encompassing manner of the forms of all that has existed and will exist from pre-eternity and sempiternity in the first intelligible world which is the spirit of the world called the Mother Book, which is the preceding decree; then comes the unseen of the world of the hearts which is that very engraving itself differentiated in cognitive detail universally and particularly in the world of the universal soul, which is the heart of the world called the Preserved Tablet; then comes the unseen of the imaginal world, which is the engraving of engendered beings in their entirety within the particular souls of the celestial spheres imprinted in the celestial bodies therein entified, individuated and joined to their moments in accordance to the very thing that occurs: this world is the one referred to in the [revelations of the] law as the heaven of this world (al-samāÌ al-dunyā), since it is the nearest of the levels of the unseen to the world of witnessing and the tablet of divine predestination, which is the differentiated form of His decree. God's knowledge, which is the first solicitude, entails His encompassing of all things by the presence of His essence in all of these worlds, which constitute the very source of His essence, such that He has knowledge of them together with all of the forms within them as individual entities and not through some additional form: [His] knowledge of these is the very thing that they are. Not even the weight of an atom escapes Him in the heavens or in the earth [Q. 34:3]. Thus if mafātiḥ is [taken as] the plural of maftaḥ, which is a 'store' (makhzan), then it means that with Him are those storehouses that subsume all of the unseens, by virtue of His essence being present therein; none but He knows them. If it is [taken as] the plural of miftaḥ, in the sens of 'key' (miftāḥ), then either it has that very meaning [of 'keys'], in other words, that its doors are closed and the keys are in His hand such that no one accesses them, or [it has the meaning] that the causes of its [the unseen's] manifestation and its being brought out from its place to the world of witness such that creatures are able to know it lies in His power and His disposal, preserved with Him, none other than Him is able to extract it from Him in order to know what it contains, being His Names, exalted be He; as for the 'clear book', this is the heaven of this world by virtue of these particulars being entified therein despite their number and individuations.
The Prophet Understands What He Conveys; Torment is in Allah's Hands Not the Prophet's
Allah says, just as We mentioned the clear signs that testify and direct to the path of guidance, all the while chastising useless arguments and defiance,
كَذلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الآيَـتِ
(And thus do We explain the Ayat in detail,) that is, whatever responsible adults need explained to them, in the affairs of life and religion,
وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
(That the way of the criminals may become manifest.) so that the path of the criminals who defy the Prophets is apparent and clear. This Ayah was also said to mean, so that you, O Muhammad, are aware of the path of the criminals. Allah's statement,
قُلْ إِنِّى عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّى
(Say: "I am on clear proof from my Lord...'') means: I have a clear understanding of the Law of Allah that He has revealed to me,
(but you deny it.) meaning, but you disbelieve in the truth that came to me from Allah.
مَا عِندِى مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ
(I do not have what you are hastily seeking) meaning, the torment,
إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ للَّهِ
(The decision is only for Allah,) for the ruling of this is with Allah. If He wills, He will punish you soon in response to your wish! If He wills, He will give you respite, out of His great wisdom. This is why Allah said,
يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَـصِلِينَ
(He declares the truth, and He is the best of judges.) and the best in reckoning between His servants. Allah's statement,
(Say: "If I had that which you are asking for impatiently (the torment), the matter would have been settled at once between you and I,'') means, if I have what you ask for, I will surely send down what you deserve of it,
وَاللهُ أَعْلَمْ بِالظَّالِمِيَن
(but Allah knows best the wrongdoers) Someone might ask about the meaning of this Ayah compared to the Hadith in the Two Sahihs, from `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that she said to the Messenger, "O Allah's Messenger ! Have you encountered a day harder than the day (of the battle) of Uhud'' The Prophet replied,
(Your people have troubled me alot and the worst trouble was on the day of `Aqabah when I presented myself to Ibn `Abd Yalil bin `Abd Kulal, who did not respond to my call. So I departed, overwhelmed with severe sorrow, proceeded on and could not relax until I found myself at Qarn Ath-Tha`alib where I raised my head towards the sky to see a cloud unexpectedly shading me. I looked up and saw Jibril in it and he called me saying, `Indeed Allah has heard what you said to the people and what they have responded to you. Therefore, Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.' The Angel of the Mountains called and greeted me, and then said, `O Muhammad! verily, Allah has heard how your people responded to you and He has sent me to you so that you could order me to do what you wish. If you like, I will let Al-Akhshabayn (two mountains to the north and south of Makkah) fall on them.' The Prophet said, No, but I hope that Allah will let them generate offspring who will worship Allah Alone, and will worship none besides Him.) This is the wording of Muslim. Tormenting the disbelievers of Quraysh was offered to the Prophet, but he chose patience and asked Allah for respite for them, so that Allah might let them generate offspring who will not associate anything with Him in worship. Therefore, how can we combine the meaning of this Hadith and the honorable Ayah,
(Say: "If I had that which you are asking for impatiently (the torment), the matter would have been settled at once between you and I, but Allah knows best the wrongdoers.'') The answer to this question is, Allah knows the best, that the Ayah states that if the punishment that they asked for was in the Prophet's hand at the time, he would have sent it on them as they asked. As for the Hadith, the disbelievers did not ask the Prophet to send the torment down on them. Rather, the angel responsible for the mountains offered him the choice to let the two mountains to the north and south of Makkah close in on the disbelievers and crush them. The Prophet did not wish that and asked for respite out of compassion for them.
(Verily, Allah! With Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware)'') 31:34. Allah's statement,
وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ
(And He knows whatever there is on the land and in the sea;) means, Allah's honored knowledge encompasses everything, including the creatures living in the sea and on land, and none of it, not even the weight of an atom on earth or in heaven, ever escapes His knowledge. Allah's statement,
وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا
(not a leaf falls, but He knows it.) means, He knows the movements of everything including inanimate things. Therefore, what about His knowledge of the living creatures, especially, those whom the Divine laws have been imposed upon such as mankind and the Jinns In another Ayah, Allah said;
(Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.) 40:19
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This alludes to the demand of the opponents for the scourge of Allah with which they were being threatened. They said, "Why does a scourge not come down upon us, when we are openly denying and defying you? If you have been really sent by Allah, then anyone, who denied and insulted you, would have been swallowed by the earth or stricken dead by lightning. How is it that the Messenger of Allah and his followers are undergoing untold afflictions and sufferings, while their tormentors are enjoying their lives merrily?"
Angels who keep strict watch over each and everything a man does or thinks of and maintain a complete record of all this.