Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And when those who believe in Our revelations) in our Book and Messenger; the reference here is to 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab (come unto thee, say) O Muhammad: (Peace be unto you!) Allah has accepted your repentance and excuse (Your Lord hath prescribed for Himself mercy) for anyone who repents, (that whoso of you doeth evil) sins (through ignorance) intentionally even though he did not know its due punishment (and repenteth afterward thereof) and repents of this sin (and doeth right) in relation to that which is between him and his Lord, ((for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving) He overlooks sins, (Merciful) towards him who repents.
And when those who have faith in Our signs come to thee, say, “Peace be upon you. Your Lord has written mercy against Himself, that whosoever of you does an ugly deed in ignorance, and thereafter repents and makes wholesome, He is forgiving, ever-merciful.”
“The faithful are one thing, the recognizers something else. The faithful first look at the artifacts and the signs, then they reach Us from the signs. The recognizers first reach Us, then they return from Us to the signs.
“O MuḤammad! Unto those who have faith in Us by the intermediary of the signs, convey Our greeting of peace by the intermediary of yourself! Unto those who recognize Us without intermediary and find Us without the artifacts, We will convey Our greetings of peace without intermediary.” That is in His words, “Peace-a word from an ever-merciful Lord” [36:58].
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “O God, he who recognizes You through the artifacts depends on the secondary causes, he who recognizes You through the attributes is imprisoned by reports, and he who recognizes You by allusion seeks companionship. He who is snatched away by You is protected from himself.”
Although He has turned you over to the angel who writes your slips against you, He Himself has undertaken to write mercy for you. His writing for you is beginningless, and that writing against you is temporal. The temporal does not nullify the beginningless.
WāsiṬī said, “By His mercy they arrived at worshiping Him. It is not that by worshiping Him they arrived at His mercy. By His mercy they attained what is with Him, not by their acts, for the Prophet said, 'Not even I, unless God envelops me with His mercy.'”
Whosoever of you does an ugly deed in ignorance, and thereafter repents and makes wholesome, He is forgiving, ever-merciful. It has been narrated in a report, “You called upon Me, and I said 'Here I am!' You asked from Me, and I bestowed upon you. You stood up against Me, and I gave you respite. You left Me, and I took care of you. You disobeyed Me, and I curtained you. If you return to Me, I will accept you. If you turn away from Me, I will wait for you.” He is saying, “My servants, My creatures! You called out to Me, I answered you with 'Here I am!' You asked for blessings from Me, I bestowed gifts upon you.
You came out foolishly, and I gave you respite. You put aside My command, and I did not take away kind favor from you. You disobeyed, and I lowered the curtain over you. With all of this, if you come back, I will accept you, and if you turn away, I will await your coming back. I am the most munificent of the munificent, the most generous of the generous, and the most merciful of the merciful.”
And when those who believe in Our signs come to you, say, to them: ‘Peace be upon you. Your Lord has prescribed, He has decreed, for Himself mercy, to the effect that, truly (innahu, ‘truly’, may also be read as annahu, ‘that’, as a substitution for al-rahma, ‘mercy’) whoever of you does evil in ignorance, of it when he did it, and repents thereafter, after his [evil] deed, [repents] of it, and makes amends, in his actions — truly He, God, is Forgiving, Merciful’, towards him (a variant reading [for innahu, ‘truly He’] has annahu, ‘then He’), in other words, forgiveness shall be for him.
And when those who believe in Our signs, by effacing their attributes, come to you, say, 'Peace be upon you, for exalting yourselves above the faults of your attributes and your disengagement from the garments of these [attributes]. Your Lord has prescribed for Himself mercy: He has committed His essence to replace your attributes with His attributes as a mercy for you, since in God there is compensation for all that has gone before: truly whoever of you does evil in ignorance, that is, upon whomever there manifests in his variegation one of his attributes as a result of absence or forgetfulness, but then returns from that variegation after the manifestation [upon him] of that attribute and rejoins the presence, having come to know that [attribute] and curbed it through repentance to God and humble submission before Him and [through] spiritual discipline, truly He is Forgiving, covering that [attribute] from him, Merciful', to him by granting him fixity and the grace of uprightness.
(And warn therewith those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord, when there will be neither a protector nor an intercessor for them besides Him,) means, warn with this Qur'an, O Muhammad,
(those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord,) on the Day of Resurrection,
لَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ وَلِىٌّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٌ
(when there will be neither a protector nor an intercessor for them besides Him, ) for on that Day, they will have no relative or intercessor who can prevent His torment if He decides to punish them with it,
(so that they may have Taqwa.) Therefore, warn of the Day when there will be no judge except Allah,
(so that they may have Taqwa.) and thus work good deeds in this life, so that their good deeds may save them on the Day of Resurrection from Allah's torment, and so that He will grant them multiple rewards.
Prohibiting the Messenger from Turning the Weak Away and the Order to Honor Them
(And turn not away those who invoke their Lord, morning and evening seeking His Face.) meaning, do not turn away those who have these qualities, instead make them your companions and associates. In another Ayah, Allah said;
(And keep yourself patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Face, and let not your eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp and glitter of the life of the world; and obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds) has been lost.)18:28 Allah's statement,
(invoke their Lord...) refers to those who worship Him and supplicate to Him,
(morning and evening.) referring to the obligatory prayers, according to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. In another Ayah, Allah said;
وَقَالَ رَبُّكُـمْ ادْعُونِى أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ
(And your Lord said, "Invoke Me, I will respond (to your invocation).'') 40:60, I will accept your supplication. Allah said next,
(seeking His Face.) meaning, they seek Allah's Most Generous Face, by sincerity for Him in the acts of worship and obedience they perform. Allah said;
(And what knowledge have I of what they used to do Their account is only with my Lord, if you could (but) know.) 26:112-113, meaning, their reckoning is for Allah not me, just as my reckoning is not up to them. Allah said here,
فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ
(that you may turn them away, and thus become of the wrongdoers.) meaning, you will be unjust if you turn them away. Allah's statement,
وَكَذلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ
(Thus We have tried some of them with others) means, We tested, tried and checked them with each other,
(That they might say: "Is it these (poor believers) that Allah has favored from amongst us'') This is because at first, most of those who followed the Messenger of Allah were the weak among the people, men, women, slaves, and only a few chiefs or noted men followed him. Nuh, was also addressed by his people
(Nor do we see any follow you but the meekest among us and they (too) followed you without thinking.) 11:27 KHeraclius, emperor of Rome, asked Abu Sufyan, "Do the noblemen or the weak among people follow him (Muhammad )'' Abu Sufyan replied, "Rather the weak among them.'' Heraclius commented, "Such is the case with followers of the Messengers.'' The idolators of Quraysh used to mock the weak among them who believed in the Prophet and they even tortured some of them. They used to say, "Are these the ones whom Allah favored above us,'' meaning, Allah would not guide these people, instead of us, to all that is good, if indeed what they embraced is good. Allah mentioned similar statements in the Qur'an from the disbelievers,
لَوْ كَانَ خَيْراً مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيْهِ
(Had it been a good thing, they (weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!) 46:11, and,
("Is it these (poor believers) that Allah has favored from amongst us'' Does not Allah know best those who are grateful) Meaning is not Allah more knowledgeable of those who thank and appreciate Him in statement, action and heart Thus Allah directs these believers to the ways of peace, transfers them from darkness to light by His leave, and guides them to the straight path. In another Ayah, Allah said;
(When those who believe in Our Ayat come to you, say: "Salamun `Alaykum'' (peace be on you);) means, honor them by returning the Salam and give them the good news of Allah's exclusive, encompassing mercy for them. So Allah said;
كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ
(your Lord has written Mercy for Himself,) meaning, He has obliged His Most Honored Self to grant mercy, as a favor, out of His compassion and beneficence,
أَنَّهُ مَن عَمِلَ مِنكُمْ سُوءًا بِجَهَالَةٍ
(So that, if any of you does evil in ignorance...) as every person who disobeys Allah does it in ignorance,
ثُمَّ تَابَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ
(and thereafter repents and does righteous good deeds,) by repenting from the sins that he committed, intending not to repeat the sin in the future, but to perform righteous deeds,
فَأَنَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(then surely, He is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When Allah finished with the creation, He wrote in a Book that He has with Him above the Throne, `My mercy prevails over My anger'.) This Hadith was also recorded in the The Two Sahihs.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Allah has told his Messenger to console those of His followers who had committed heinous sins during the days of "ignorance" by inspiring them with the assurance that He forgives and treats leniently those who repent and mend their ways and, therefore, the taunts of the enemies of Islam need not worry them about what they had done in the past.
In order to understand the significance of v. 55, we should keep in view v. 37 in which the disbelievers asked, "Why has no Sign been sent down to this Prophet from his Lord?" In the subsequent passage (vv. 38-54) several manifest Signs have been cited to show that there is no lack of Signs but the disbelievers do not want to see them. Then in v. 55 such people have been warned, as if to say, "In this way We make Our Signs clear, plain and manifest so that those, who persist in their disbelief inspire of those Signs, should prove themselves to be guilty ones. For they choose the way of deviation deliberately, not because there is a lack of Signs to show the Right Way but because they do not want to see the Signs."
..Your Lord has prescribed for Himself mercy. Truly, whoever of you does evil in ignorance, and repents thereafter and makes amends — truly He is Forgiving, Merciful.It has been reported that God, Exalted is He, revealed to David, ‘O David, whoever knows Me, desires Me; whoever desires Me, loves Me; whoever loves Me, seeks Me out; whoever seeks Me out, finds Me; and whoever finds Me, preserves Me [in his heart] (ḥafiẓanī)’. David replied [by asking], ‘O my Lord! Where can I find You when I wish to seek you out?’ He said, ‘With those whose hearts are broken from the fear of Me.’ David then said, ‘O my Lord! I approached the doctors among Your servants for treatment, but they all directed me to You — Wretched are those who despair of Your mercy! Is there a chance of my being worthy of being cured by You?’ God, Mighty and Majestic is He, asked him, ‘Did all those you approached guide You to Me?’ He answered, ‘Yes’, and God said, ‘Then go and give the sinners good tidings, and give warning to the veracious (ṣiddīqūn).’ David was baffled and said, ‘Have I misunderstood or not?’ He replied, ‘You are not mistaken.’ David asked, ‘How is that?’ He said: ‘Give the sinners the good tidings that I am forgiving (ghafūr) and warn the veracious (ṣiddīqūn) that I am jealous (ghayūr).’ He [Sahl] was asked, ‘Who are veracious?’ He replied:They are those who combat their lower selves through the glorification (taṣbīḥ) and veneration(taqdīs) [of God]. Furthermore, they are those who keep their bodily limbs and senses in check. Hence, they become veracious in speech and action, veracious outwardly and inwardly, veracious in their involvement in anything and likewise in their disengagement from anything. Consequently, their place of return is an abode of truth ⸢in the lofty rank of truth⸣ with the All-Powerful King. His words, Transcendent and Exalted is He:
(And when those who believe in Our revelations come unto thee, say: Peace be unto you!) [6:54]. Said 'Ikrimah: “This verse was revealed about those whom Allah, exalted is He, had forbidden His Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, from repelling. Whenever the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, saw them, he greeted them first with the greeting of peace, and then said: 'Praise be to Allah Who has made in my community people whom He has commanded me to initiate their greeting with the greeting of peace' ”. Said Mahan al-Hanafi: “The clan of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, went to him and said: 'We have committed enormous sins', and I think he answered them with something. When they left, this verse was revealed (And when those who believe in Our revelations come…)”.