Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And those who believe in Allah and His messengers) from among all nations, (they are the loyal) in their faith; (and the martyrs are with their Lord; they have their reward and their light) at the Bridge over hell; and it is also said this means that the martyrs mentioned above refer to the witnesses who will testify in favour of the prophets against their respective peoples; and it is said that they refer to those who were killed while fighting for the sake of Allah: all these have the reward of the prophets in the course of conveying their message and will also have their light at the Bridge over hell to see their way while crossing it; (while as for those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations) i.e. the Scripture and Messenger, (they are owners of hellfire) they are the dwellers of the Fire.
And those who believe in God and His messengers — they are the truthful, (al-siddīqūna) those who go to the greatest lengths to be truthful, and the witnesses with their Lord, against the deniers of [all] communities; they will have their reward and their light. But those who disbelieve and deny Our signs, those [signs] that testify to [the truth of] Our Oneness — they will be the inhabitants of Hell-fire.
Reward for the Charitable, the True Believers and the Martyrs; and the Destination of the Disbelieve
Allah the Exalted describes the reward that He will award to those who spend from their wealth, whether male or female, on the needy, the poor and the meek,
اللَّهَ قَرْضاً حَسَناً وَمَا
(and lend Allah handsome loan,) meaning, they give in charity with a good heart seeking the pleasure of Allah. They do not seek worldly rewards or appreciation from those to whom they give in charity. Allah's statement,
(it shall be increased manifold,) indicating that He will multiply the good deeds from tenfold, up to seven hundredfold and even more than that,
وَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ كَرِيمٌ
(and theirs shall be an honorable good reward.) theirs will be a generous, handsome reward, a good dwelling to return to and an honorable final destination. Allah's statement,
(And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers -- they are the Siddiqun) This completes His description of those who have faith in Him and in His Messengers, by describing them as Siddiqun, true believers. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas about
(and the martyrs (are) with their Lord. They shall have their reward and their light.) Abu Ad-Duha (stopped after he) recited,
أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الصِّدِّيقُونَ
(they are the Siddiqun), then initiated recitation:
وَالشُّهَدَآءُ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ
(and the martyrs (are) with their Lord.) Masruq, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others said similarly. Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud commented on Allah's statement,
(And whoso obey Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous.)(4:69) Therefore, Allah made a distinction between the Siddiqin and the martyrs, indicating that they are of two distinct categories, so there is no doubt that Siddiq is a better status than the martyr. Imam Malik bin Anas recorded in his Muwatta' that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The people of Paradise will look at the dwellers of the lofty mansions as one looks at a brilliant star far away in the east or in the west on the horizon, because of their superiority over one another.) On that the people said, "O Allah's Messenger! Are these lofty mansions for the Prophets whom none else can reach'' The Prophet replied,
(The souls of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds, who fly wherever they wish in Paradise and then return to their nests in chandeliers. Once your Lord cast a glance at them and said, `Do you want anything'' They said, "We wish that You return us to the life of the world, so that we may fight in Your cause and be killed as we were killed the first time.'' Allah said, "I have decreed that they shall not be returned to it again.'') Allah's statement,
لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ وَنُورُهُمْ
(They shall have their reward and their light.), means that Allah will grant them a generous reward and a tremendous light that will precede before them. In this, the believers vary regarding the level of reward they receive, according to their good actions in the life of this world. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(There are four ranks of martyrs. The first is a man who believes and who is true in faith, who meets the enemy (in battle), fulfills his duty to Allah and is killed. This is the type that the people will look up to (his level in Paradise), like this.) The Prophet raised his head until his cap fell off his head, and the same happened to `Umar. The Prophet continued,
(The second is a believer who meets the enemy and is struck by a stray arrow which causes him to die. This believer is in the second grade. The third is a believer who has combined good deeds with evil deeds; he meets the enemy and is truthful to his duty to Allah until he is killed. This is the third category. And the fourth is a believer who has committed sins excessively, so he meets the enemy and is truthful to his duty to Allah, and is killed. This is the fourth category.) `Ali bin Al-Madini also reported this Hadith and said, "This Egyptian chain is Salih useful.'' At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib.'' Allah's statement,
(But those who disbelieve and deny Our Ayat -- they shall be the dwellers of the blazing Fire.) mentions the destination and the condition of the miserable ones, after Allah mentioned the destination and rewards of the happy ones.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Sadagah, as an Islamic term, is the charity given sincerely and with a pure intention only with a view to seek Allah's good pleasure without making any show of it, and without the intention of doing any favor to the recipient. The donor should give it only because he has a true feeling of the service of his Lord. The word is derived from sidq; therefore, sadaqat(sincerity) is of its essence. No charity and no expending of the wealth can be a sadaqah unless it springs from a sincere and pure motive of spending only for the sake of Allah.
Here, the believers imply those people of true faith whose attitude and conduct was absolutely different from that of the people of weak faith and the false claimants to Islam, and who were at that time vying with one another in making monetary sacrifices and were struggling with their lives in the cause of the true Faith.
Siddiq (most truthful) is the superlative from sidq; however, one should clearly understand that sidq Is not merely a statement conforming to the truth, but a statement which is not only true in itself but its Bayer also upholds it as a truth sincerely. For instance, if a person says that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) is Allah's Messenger, this is by itself precisely according to 'the truth for the Holy Prophet is truly Allah's Messenger, but the person would be true in his statement only if he also believed and upheld him as Allah's Messenger. Therefore, a thing would be sidq if what was said was in conformity with the truth as well as with the Bayer's own conscience. Likewise, sidq also contains the sense of faithfulness, sincerity and practical righteousness. Sadiq-ul-wa d would be the person who kept his promise practically, who never broke it. Sadiq (true friend) would be he who did full justice to friendship in the time of need, and who never proved faithless to any, body in any way. In war, sadiq fil-qital (true soldier) would be the one who fought with all his heart and body and established his valor practically. Thus, sidq in essence implies that one's deed should fully conform to one's word. The one who acts contrary to his word cannot be Sadiq. On that very basis, the one who preaches one thing and acts contrary to it, is regarded as a false preacher. With this meaning of sidq and sadiq in view one can fully appreciate the meaning of the superlative sadiq. It would inevitably imply a righteous person who is free from every impurity, who has never swerved from the truth and piety, who could never be expected to say anything against his conscience. who believed in whatever he believed with full sincerity and remained faithful to it under all circumstances, and who has practically proved that he is a true believer in the full sense of the word. (For further explanation, see E.N. 99 of An-Nisa).
The early commentators have differed about the explanation of this verse. Ibn 'Abbas, Masruq, Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others say that the previous sentence ended with humsssiddiqun; and wash-shuhada'-u `inda Rabbihim la-hum ajru-hum wa nuru-hum is a separate and independent sentence According to this explanation, the translation of the sentence would be: "Those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, are indeed the most truthful (as siddiqun); as for the true witnesses (ash-shuhada ), they will have their reward and their light from their Lord. " Contrary to this, Mujahid and several other commentators regard this whole expression as one sentence. According to them the translation would be that which we have given in the text above. The two commentaries differ because the first group has taken the word Shahid in the meaning of the martyr in the way of Allah. and seeing that every believer is not a shahid in this sense, has taken wash-shuhada'-u `inda Rabbi-him as a separate sentence. But the other group takes shahid in the meaning of the witness of the Truth, and not in the sense of the martyr, and in this sense every believer is a shahid. We are of the opinion that this second commentary is preferable and this is
"Thus have We made you a community of the 'Golden Mean' so that you may be witnesses in regard to mankind and the Messenger may be a witness in regard to you." (AI-Baqarah; 143).
"Allah had called you "Muslims" before this ant has called you (by the same name) in this (Qur'an) also so that the Messenger may be a witness in regard to you and you may be witnesses in regard to the rest of mankind." (Al-Hajj: 78)
In a Hadith, Hadrat Bara' bin 'Azib has related that he heard the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) say: ¦The believers of my Ummah are shahid (the witnesses); then he recited this very verse of Surah AI-Hadid. " (Ibn Jarir). Ibn Marduyah has related on the authority of Hadrat Abu ad-Darda' the tradition that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) said: "The one who emigrates from a land in order to save his life and his faith from temptation, is recorded as a Siddiq (most truthful), and when he dies, Allah takes his soul as a shahid (true witness). Then aftar this, the Holy Prophet recited this very verse. " (For 'the explanation of this meaning of shahadat, see E:N. 144 of AI-Baqarah, E.N 99 of An-Nisa', E.N. 82 of Al-Ahzab).
That is, "Each one of them will receive the reward and the light of the measure and degree he deserves. They will all get their own respective rewards and lights, and their shares have already been reserved for them."