Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(The sun and the moon are made punctual) their orbits are measured; and it is also said that this means: they are suspended half way between heaven and earth; and it is also said that this means: they both will be taken to task and have a lifespan like the lifespan of human beings.
(Ar-Rahman! He has taught the Qur'an. He created man. He taught him Al-Bayan.) Al-Hasan said: "Eloquent speech.'' This refers to Allah teaching the Qur'an, that is, teaching the servants how to recite it by making it easy for them to speak and pronounce letters with the various parts of the mouth, such as the alveolar bridge, the tongue and the lips
Among Allah's Signs: the Sun, the Moon, the Sky and the Earth
الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ
(The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.) They move in their orbit in perfect succession, according to precise calculation that is never delayed nor disturbed,
((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for calculating. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96), Allah said,
وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ
(And the Najm and the trees prostrating.) Ibn Jarir commented, "Scholars of Tafsir disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement, `And the Najm.' They agreed, however, that the trees mentioned here are those that stand on trunks.''`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "An-Najm refers to the plants that lay on the ground.'' Similar was said by Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and Sufyan Ath-Thawri. This is what Ibn Jarir preferred, may Allah have mercy upon him. Mujahid said, "An-Najm (the star); the one that is in the sky.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said similarly. This is the saying that is the most obvious, and Allah knows best, for Allah the Exalted said,
(See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving creatures, and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah.)(22:18) Allah's statement,
وَالسَّمَآءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ
(And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.) meaning the justice, as He said in another Ayah,
(Indeed, We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that mankind may keep up equity.)(57:25) Allah said here,
أَلاَّ تَطْغَوْاْ فِى الْمِيزَانِ
(In order that you may not transgress the balance.) meaning, He created the heavens and earth in justice and truth so that everything is founded on, and observing, justice and truth. Allah's statement,
(And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) meaning, do not cheat in the weights and measures, but rather observe justice and fairness,
وَزِنُواْ بِالْقِسْطَاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ
(And weigh with the true and straight balance.)(26:182) Allah said,
وَالاٌّرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلاٌّنَامِ
(And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-Ana'm.) Allah raised the heavens and put down, or laid, the earth and balanced it with firm mountains, so that it would be stable for its residents that live on it, i.e. the various types and kinds of creatures, different in species, shape, color and language. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Al-An'am means the creatures.
(Therein are fruits,) of various colors, taste and scent,
وَالنَّخْلُ ذَاتُ الاٌّكْمَامِ
(and date palms producing Akmam.) Allah mentioned the date tree here specifically because of its benefit, both fresh and dry. Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn `Abbas said said Al-Akmam, means sheathed fruit stalks. Similar was said by more than one of the scholars of Tafsir, it refers to the stalks that the seeds grow in to become a cluster of dates, unripe green dates then they ripen and ripen more. Allah said,
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ
(And also corn, with (its) `Asf, and Rayhan.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that in,
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ
(And also corn, with (its) `Asf), `Asf means straw.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "`Asf is green leaves cut from the stem, so it is called `Asf when it dries out.'' Similarly, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Malik said that `Asf means straw. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that Rayhan means leaves, while Al-Hasan said that it means sweet-scented plants. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Rayhan means green leaves. The meanings here, and Allah knows best, are the various crops that produce straw, such as wheat and barley, and Rayhan are the leaves that grow on the stems.
Mankind is surrounded by Allah's Favors
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ
(13. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)
meaning, "O mankind and Jinn,which of the favors that Allah has given to you do you deny'' Muj ahid and others said this, and itis apparent when one reads what comes af ter it. Meaning the favors that are obvious to youwhile you are surrounded by them, you cannot deny or rej ect them. So we say, just as thebelievers among the Jinns said, "O Allah! None of Your favors do we deny. All praise is due toYou. '' Ibn ` Abbas used to say, "Nay, our Lord! '' meaning, "None of Your favors do we deny. ''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That is, "It is a powerful law and unalterable system that binds the great planets together. Man is able to calculate and measure time, days, dates, and crops and seasons only because no change takes place in the rule that Has been laid down for the rising and setting of the sun and of its passing through different stages. The innumerable creatures found on the earth are staying alive only because the sun and the moon have been accurately and precisely placed at particular distances from the earth and any increase or decrease in this distance is made in the right measure, in a particular order; otherwise if their distance from the earth increased or decreased haphazardly, no one, could possibly survive here. Likewise, the perfect relationship and harmony that has been established between the movements of the moon round the earth and the sun, has made the moon a universal calendar, which announces the lunar date every night to the whole world with perfect regularity.
The word used in the original is an-najm, the well-known meaning of which is the star; but in the Arabic lexicon this word is also used for the plants and creepers which do not have a stem, e.g. vegetable, melons, water melons, etc. The commentators have disputed the sense in which this word has been used here. Ibn 'Abbas, Sa'id bin Jubair, Suddi, and Sufyan Thauri have taken it in the meaning of stemless vegetation, for just after it the word ash-shajar (the tree) has been used and this meaning is more relevant to it. On the contrary, Mujahid, Qatadah and Hasan Basri have expressed the opinion that an-najm here does not imply the plants of the earth, but the stars of the sky, for this is its well-known meaning. On hearing this word, the mind first turns to this very meaning, and the mention of the sun and the moon has been followed by the stars very naturally and relevantly. Though the majority of the commentators and translators have preferred the first meaning, and it cannot be held wrong either, we hold Hafiz Ibn Kathir's this opinion as sound that in view of both the language and the subject-matter the second meaning seems to be preferable. At another place in the Qur'an (AI-Hajj: 18) also mention has been made of the stars and the trees prostrating themselves, and there the word nujum (pl. of najm) cannot be taken in any other meaning than of the stars. The words of the verse are: Alam fara annallaha yasjudu lahu man fis sma wat-i wa man fil ardi wash-shamsu wal-qamaru walnujumu wal jibalu wash-shajaru wad-da wabbu wa kathir-um-min-annasi.... (AI-Hajj: 18). In this verse nujum (stars) have been mentioned along with shams (sun) and qamar (moon), and shajar (trees) along with mountains and animals and it has been said that they all bow down to Allah.
That is, "The stars of the heavens and the trees of the earth, all are subject to Allah's Command and obedient to His Law. They cannot exceed the rule that has been set for them." What is meant to be impressed in these two verses is that the whole system of the Universe has been created by Allah and is functioning in His obedience. Nothing front the earth to the heavens is independent, nor functioning under another's godhead, nor has anyone any share in God's Kingdom, nor has anyone the position that it should be made a deity. All are servants and slaves: the Master is One Almighty Lord alone. Hence, Tauhid alone is the Truth which is being taught by this Qur'an. Apart from this, any one who is involved in polytheism and denial of God is, in fact, at war with the whole system of the Universe.
Almost all the commentators have interpreted mizan (balance) to mean justice, and '...set the balance" to imply that Allah has established the entire system of the Universe on justice. Had there been no harmony and balance and justice established among the countless stars and planets moving in space, and the mighty forces working in this Universe, and the innumerable creatures and things found here, this life on earth would not have functioned even for a moment. Look at the creatures existing in the air and water and on land for millions and millions of years on this earth. They continue to exist only because full justice and balance has been established in the means and factors conducive to life; in case there occurs a slight imbalance of any kind, every tract of lift would become extinct.
That is, "As you are living in a balanced Universe, whose entire system has been established on justice, you also should adhere to justice. For if you act unjustly within the sphere in which you have been given authority, and fail to render the rights of others, you would indeed be rebelling against the nature of the Universe; for the nature of this Universe does not admit of injustice and perversion and violation of the rights. Not to speak of a major injustice, even if a person fraudulently deprives another of an ounce of something, by giving him short measure, he disturbs the balance of the entire Universe.-This is the second important part of the Qur'anic teaching that has been presented in these three verses. The first teaching is Tauhid and the second is justice. Thus, in a few brief sentences the people have been told what teaching has been brought by the Qur'an which the Merciful God has sent for the guidance of man."