The Quran

Commentaries for 55.12

Ar Rahman (The beneficent) - الرحمن

55.12 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Husked grain) all kind of grain (and scented herb) spikes of grain and fruits.
55.12 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
and grain, such as wheat and barley, with husk, and fragrant herb.
55.1-13 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Ar-Rahman revealed and taught the Qur'an
Allah informs of His favors and His mercy for His creatures, for He revealed the Qur'an to His servants, He made memorizing and understanding of it easy for those on whom He has bestowed His mercy,
الرَّحْمَـنُ - عَلَّمَ الْقُرْءَانَ - خَلَقَ الإِنسَـنَ - عَلَّمَهُ البَيَانَ
(Ar-Rahman! He has taught the Qur'an. He created man. He taught him Al-Bayan.) Al-Hasan said: "Eloquent speech.'' This refers to Allah teaching the Qur'an, that is, teaching the servants how to recite it by making it easy for them to speak and pronounce letters with the various parts of the mouth, such as the alveolar bridge, the tongue and the lips
Among Allah's Signs: the Sun, the Moon, the Sky and the Earth
Allah said,
الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ
(The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.) They move in their orbit in perfect succession, according to precise calculation that is never delayed nor disturbed,
لاَ الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِى لَهَآ أَن تدْرِكَ القَمَرَ وَلاَ الَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِى فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ
(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.)(36:40),
فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيْلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَاناً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ
((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for calculating. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96), Allah said,
وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ
(And the Najm and the trees prostrating.) Ibn Jarir commented, "Scholars of Tafsir disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement, `And the Najm.' They agreed, however, that the trees mentioned here are those that stand on trunks.''`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "An-Najm refers to the plants that lay on the ground.'' Similar was said by Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and Sufyan Ath-Thawri. This is what Ibn Jarir preferred, may Allah have mercy upon him. Mujahid said, "An-Najm (the star); the one that is in the sky.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said similarly. This is the saying that is the most obvious, and Allah knows best, for Allah the Exalted said,
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَآبُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ
(See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving creatures, and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah.)(22:18) Allah's statement,
وَالسَّمَآءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ
(And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.) meaning the justice, as He said in another Ayah,
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ
(Indeed, We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that mankind may keep up equity.)(57:25) Allah said here,
أَلاَّ تَطْغَوْاْ فِى الْمِيزَانِ
(In order that you may not transgress the balance.) meaning, He created the heavens and earth in justice and truth so that everything is founded on, and observing, justice and truth. Allah's statement,
وَأَقِيمُواْ الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلاَ تُخْسِرُواْ الْمِيزَانَ
(And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) meaning, do not cheat in the weights and measures, but rather observe justice and fairness,
وَزِنُواْ بِالْقِسْطَاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ
(And weigh with the true and straight balance.)(26:182) Allah said,
وَالاٌّرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلاٌّنَامِ
(And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-Ana'm.) Allah raised the heavens and put down, or laid, the earth and balanced it with firm mountains, so that it would be stable for its residents that live on it, i.e. the various types and kinds of creatures, different in species, shape, color and language. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Al-An'am means the creatures.
فِيهَا فَـكِهَةٌ
(Therein are fruits,) of various colors, taste and scent,
وَالنَّخْلُ ذَاتُ الاٌّكْمَامِ
(and date palms producing Akmam.) Allah mentioned the date tree here specifically because of its benefit, both fresh and dry. Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn `Abbas said said Al-Akmam, means sheathed fruit stalks. Similar was said by more than one of the scholars of Tafsir, it refers to the stalks that the seeds grow in to become a cluster of dates, unripe green dates then they ripen and ripen more. Allah said,
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ
(And also corn, with (its) `Asf, and Rayhan.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that in,
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ
(And also corn, with (its) `Asf), `Asf means straw.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "`Asf is green leaves cut from the stem, so it is called `Asf when it dries out.'' Similarly, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Malik said that `Asf means straw. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that Rayhan means leaves, while Al-Hasan said that it means sweet-scented plants. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Rayhan means green leaves. The meanings here, and Allah knows best, are the various crops that produce straw, such as wheat and barley, and Rayhan are the leaves that grow on the stems.
Mankind is surrounded by Allah's Favors
Allah said,
وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ
(13. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)
meaning, "O mankind and Jinn,which of the favors that Allah has given to you do you deny'' Muj ahid and others said this, and itis apparent when one reads what comes af ter it. Meaning the favors that are obvious to youwhile you are surrounded by them, you cannot deny or rej ect them. So we say, just as thebelievers among the Jinns said, "O Allah! None of Your favors do we deny. All praise is due toYou. '' Ibn ` Abbas used to say, "Nay, our Lord! '' meaning, "None of Your favors do we deny. ''
55.10-13 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Now from here to verse 20, mention is being made of the blessing and bounties of God and of those manifestations of His might by which both man and jinn are benefiting, and whose natural and moral demand is that although they have the option to believe or not to believe, they should adopt the way of their Lord's service and obedience willingly by their own free choice.
The word wade ` in the original means to compost, make, prepare, keep. and inscribe, and anam the creatures, which includes man and all other living things. According to Ibn 'Abbas, anam includes every thing which has a soul. Mujahid takes it in the meaning of the living creatures. Qatadah, Ibn Zaid and Sha'bi say that all living things are anam. Hasan Basri says that both the men and the jinn are included in its meaning. The same meanings have been~given by the lexicographers. This shows that the people who deduce from this verse the command of making land the state property, are in error. This is an ugly attempt to introduce alien theories forcibly into the Qur'an which arc neither supported by the words of the verse nor by the context. Anam is not used only for human society but it includes all other creatures of the earth as well, and setting of the earth for anam does not mean that it should be the common property of all. Besides, the context here also does not indicate that the object of the verse is to state some economic principle. This, in fact, is meant to impress the truth that Allah made and prepared this earth in such a way that it became a fit abode for every kind of living being. It has not become so by itself, but by the will and power of the Creator. He in His wisdom placed it at a suitable distance and created such conditions on it which made it possible for the different species to exist and stay alive on it. (For explanation, see E.N.'s 73, 74 of An-Naml, E.N.'s 29, 32 of Ya Sin, E.N.'s 90, 91 of Al-Mu'min, E.N.'s 11 to 13 of Ha Mim As-Sajdah, E.N.'s 7 to 10 of Az.Zukhruf, E.N. 7 of AI-Jathiyah).
That is, grain for men and husk for the animals.
The word alaa' in the refrain as repeated over and over again in the subsequent verses has been translated differently at different places. Therefore, it would be useful to understand at the outset how vast this word is in meaning and what different shades of meaning it contains.
The lexicographers and commentators generally have explained alaa' to mean "blessings" and "bounties". The translators also have given this same meaning of this word, and the same has been reported from Ibn 'Abbas, Qatadah and Hasan Basri. The major argument that supports this meaning is the Holy Prophet's own statement that the jinn on hearing this verse being recited would respond to it, saying La bi-shai in-min-ni maatika Rabba-na nukadhdhib: "O our Lord, we do not deny any of Your blessings." Therefore, we do not subscribe to the view of some present-day scholars, who say that alaa' is never used in the meaning of the blessing.
Another meaning of this word is power and wonders of power, or excellent manifestations of power. Ibn Jarir Tabari has reported that Ibn Zaid took the words fa-bi-ayyi alaa i Rabbi kuma in the meaning of fa bi-ayyi qudrat-Allah. Ibn Jarir himself has taken alaa' in the meaning of power and might in his commentary of vv. 37-38. Imam Razi also has made this observation in his commentary of vv.14-16: "These verses do not describe the blessings but the powers of Allah, and in the commentary of vv. 22-23, this; "These describe the wonders of power and not the blessings."
Its third meaning is virtue, praiseworthy qualities, and perfections. Though this meaning has not been mentioned by the lexicographers and commentators, this word has often been used in this meaning in Arabic poetry. ( Examples omitted).
Thus, we have taken this word in its vastest meaning and translated it suitably keeping in view the context in which it occurs. However, at some places the word alaa ' may have several senses in one and the same place, but due to limitations of translation we have had to adopt only one meaning. For example, in this verse after making mention of the creation of the earth and of making the best arrangements for the supply of provisions to the creatures, it has been said: 'Which of the alaa' of your Lord will you deny?" Here, alaa' has not been used in the meaning of the blessings only but also in the meaning of the manifestations of Allah Almighty's power and His praiseworthy attributes. It is a wonder of His might that He fashioned this earth in such a marvelous manner that countless species of creatures live here and an endless variety of fruits and grain are grown on it. And it is due to His praiseworthy qualities that He not only created these creatures but also made arrangements for their sustenance and the supply of provisions for them; and the arrangements also so perfect that their food is not only nutritious but also pleasing to the taste and sight. In this connection, reference has been made to only one excellence of Allah Almighty's workmanship for the sake of example, viz., the creation of the date-palm fruit in sheaths. Keeping this one example in view one may consider what excellences of art have been devised and shown in the packing of banana, pomegranates, orange, coconut and other fruits, and how each of the different sorts of the grains and pulses which we so thoughtlessly cook and eat, are produced hotly packed and covered in ears and pods and clusters.
"Denying" implies the several attitudes that the people adopt in respect of Allah Almighty's blessings and manifestations of His might and His praiseworthy attributes. For example, some people do not at all admit that the Creator of all things is Allah Almighty. They think that all this is a mere byproduct of the matter, or an accidental happening, which is un-related with any wisdom and skill and workmanship. This is open denial.
Some other people do admit that the Creator of these things is Allah, but regard others beside Him also as associates in Godhead: they render thanks to others for His blessings: they adore others although they eat His provisions. This is another form of denial. Obviously, it would be the height of ingratitude if a person while admitting that a certain person had done him a favor rendered thanks to another, who had not in fact dent him that favor, for this act of his would be an express proof that he regarded the other person as his benefactor whom he was rendering the thanks.
There are still others. who acknowledge Allah alone as the Creator of all things and the Bestower of all blessings, but do not admit that they should obey the Commands of their Creator and Sustainer and follow His injunctions. This is another form of ingratitude and denial of the blessings, for the person who behaves so denies the right of the Bestower of the blessing although he acknowledges the blessing itself.
Some other people neither disavow the blessing nor deny the right of the Bestower of the blessing, but in practice there is no appreciable difference between their conduct and the conduct of a denier. This is not verbal denial but denial in practice.