Some Attributes of the Lord, that He returns Man as He originated Him, and some of what He does with His Servants
Allah the Exalted said,
وَأَنَّ إِلَى رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَى
(And that to your Lord is the End.) meaning, the return of everything on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said, "Once, Mu`adh bin Jabal stood up among us and said, `O Children of Awd! I am the emissary of Allah's Messenger to you; know that the Return is to Allah, either to Paradise or the Fire.''' Allah's statement,
وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَى
(And that it is He Who makes you laugh, and makes you weep.) means that He created in His creatures the ability to laugh or weep and the causes for each of these opposites,
وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا
(And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) In a similar statement, Allah said,
الَّذِى خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَوةَ
(Who has created death and life.)(67:2) Allah said,
(Does man think that he will be left neglected Was he not a Nutfah Then he became an `Alaqah (something that clings); then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. Is not He (Allah) able to give life to the dead)(75:36-40) Allah the Exalted said,
وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ النَّشْأَةَ الاٍّخْرَى
(And that upon Him is another bringing forth.) meaning, just as He first originated creation, He is able to bring it back to life, resurrecting it for the Day of Judgement,
وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَغْنَى وَأَقْنَى
(And that it is He Who Aghna (gives much) and Aqna (a little).) It is Allah Who gives wealth to His servants and this wealth remains with them. This means they are able to use it to their benefit, is this out of the completeness of His favor. Most of the statements of the scholars of Tafsir revolve around this meaning, such as those from Abu Salih, Ibn Jarir and others. Mujahid said that,
(Aghna) meaning: He gives wealth.
(Aqna) meaning: He gives servants. Similar was said by Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said;
(Aghna) means: He granted; while,
(Aqna) means: He gave contentment.
وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى
(And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shi`ra that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza' (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship.
وَأَنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ عَاداً الاٍّولَى
(And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad) the people of Hud. They are the descendants of `Ad, son of Iram, son of Sam, son of Nuh. As Allah the Exalted said,
(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad. Of Iram, with the lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land)(89:6-8) The people of `Ad were among the strongest, fiercest people and the most rebellious against Allah the Exalted and His Messenger. Allah destroyed them,
(By a furious violent wind! Which Allah imposed in them for seven nights and eight days in succession.)(69:6-7) Allah's statement,
وَثَمُودَ فَمَآ أَبْقَى
(And Thamud. He spared none), declares that He destroyed them all and spared none of them,
وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ
(And the people of Nuh aforetime.) before `Ad and Thamud,
إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَى
(Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) more unjust in disobeying Allah than those who came after them,
(And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) meaning, the cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah) to which Prophet Lut was sent. Allah turned their cities upside down over them and sent on them stones of Sijjil. Allah's statement that whatever has covered it, has covered it, is like the case with the stones of Sijjil that He sent on them,
(And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!)(26:173) Allah said,
فَبِأَىِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt) meaning, `which of Allah's favors for you, O man, do you doubt,' according to Qatadah. Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah,
فَبِأَىِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt), is directed towards the Prophet saying: "O Muhammad!'' However, the first ex- planation is better, and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The reference is to Walid bin Mughirah who was one of the prominent chiefs of the Quraish. According to Ibn Jarir Tabari, this person had first become inclined to accept the invitation of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), but when a polytheist friend of his came to know of his intention to become a Muslim, he counseled him not to give up his ancestral faith, and asked him that if he was afraid of the punishment of the Hereafter, he should pay him a certain amount of money and he would take the responsibility to suffer the punishment on his behalf. Walid accepted the offer and turned away from Allah's way. Then he paid only a little of the amount that he had promised to pay his polytheist friend and withheld the rest, The allusion to this incident was meant to toll the disbelievers of Makkah what kind of errors and follies they were involved in because of their heedlessness of the Hereafter and their ignorance of the Divine Religion. "
That is, “Does he know that this conduct is in any way beneficial for him? Does he know that a person can save himself even in this way from the punishment of the Hereafter?"
In the following verses a resume is being given of the teachings sent down in the Books of the Prophets Abraham and Moses. The Books of Moses signify the Torah. As for the Books of the Prophet Abraham they have become extinct and no mention of them is found even in the holy scriptures of the Jews and Christians. Only in the Qur'an at two places have some parts of the teachings contained in the Books of the Prophet Abraham been cited, here and in the concluding verses of Surah Al-A`la.