Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Then Allah revealed about a group of men from the Emigrants and the Helpers who asked the Prophet (pbuh): “what shall happen to those of us who died drinking intoxicant drinks before they were made unlawful”, saying: (There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe) in Muhammad and the Qur'an (and do good works) that is between them and their Lord (for what they may have eaten (in the past)) for what they have drunk in the past before intoxicants were made unlawful, whether those who did it are dead or still living. (So be mindful of your duty (to Allah)) if they warded off disbelief, idolatry and indecencies, (and do good works) that is between them and their Lord; (and again: be mindful of your duty) ward off making intoxicants lawful after they were made unlawful; this address is to the believers who are still living, (and believe) in the unlawfulness of intoxicant; (and once again: be mindful of your duty) ward off drinking it, (and do right) leave the drinking of it. (Allah loveth the good) for avoiding drinking intoxicants; this relates to those who were still alive and who drunk intoxicants before they were made unlawful.
Those who believe and perform righteous deeds are not at fault in what they may have consumed, of wine and [indulged in] of gambling before the prohibition, so long as they fear, the forbidden things, and believed and performed righteous deeds, and then were God-fearing and believed, [and then] adhered to fear of God and belief, and then were God-fearing and virtuous, in deeds; God loves the virtuous, meaning that He will reward them.
There shall be, upon those who believe, with faith based on the unseen by the affirmation of the unity of the acts, and who perform, in accordance with what their faith entails, deeds that bring them out of the veils of the acts and set them right for the vision of the acts of the Truth, no fault or constraint in what they enjoy of different types of shares, so long as they avoid the remnants of their acts and take God as their shield against acts issuing from themselves, and believe, in the unity of the attributes, and perform deeds, that bring them out of the veils of the attributes and set them right for the witnessing of the divine self-disclosures by their effacement therein, and then guard themselves, against the remnants of their attributes and take God as their shield upon the issuing of His attributes upon them, and believe, in the unity of the essence, then guard themselves, the remnants of their essences and take God as their shield upon their existence through the pure annihilation and [their] consumption in the source of the essence and who are virtuous by witnessing the differentiations at the source of the union and by their uprightness at the subsistence after the annihilation; for God loves the virtuous, those who witness the unity at the source of multiplicity, who are mindful of the dues of the differentiations at the source of the union by means of the Truth-given existence.
Prohibiting Khamr (Intoxicants) and Maysir (Gambling)
Allah forbids His believing servants from consuming Khamr and Maysir which is gambling. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ali bin Abi Talib, the Leader of the Faithful, said that chess is a type of gambling. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ata', Mujahid and Tawus, or, two of them, said that every type of gambling, including children's playing with (a certain type of) nuts, is Maysir. Ibn `Umar said that Al-Maysir means gambling, and this is the same statement that Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas, who added, "They used to gamble during the time of Jahiliyyah, until Islam came. Allah then forbade them from this evil behavior.''
Meaning of Ansab and Azlam
Al-Ansab were altar stones, in whose vicinity sacrifices were offered (during the time of Jahiliyyah), according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ata', Sa`id bin Jubayr and Al-Hasan. They also said that Al-Azlam were arrows that they used for lotteries to make decisions, as Ibn Abi Hatim narrated. Allah said,
رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ
(A Rijs of Shaytan's handiwork) meaning, abomination of Shaytan's handiwork, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported it from Ibn `Abbas. Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Rijs means `sin' while Zayd bin Aslam said; "An evil handiwork of Shaytan.''
(So avoid that) avoid all of these abominations,
(in order that you may be successful.) and this is a statement of encouragement. Allah said next,
(Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with Khamr (intoxicants) and Maysir (gambling), and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from the Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain) This is a threat and a warning.
Hadiths that Prohibit Khamr (Intoxicants)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "There were three stages to prohibiting Khamr (intoxicants). When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, the people were consuming alcohol and gambling, so they asked the Messenger of Allah about these things, Allah revealed,
(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men.'')2:219, until the end of the Ayah. The people said, `They (intoxicants and gambling) were not prohibited for us. Allah only said,
فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ
(In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men.)' So they went on drinking Khamr until one day, one of the emigrants lead his companions in the Maghrib prayer and mixed up the Ayat in his recitation. Thereafter, Allah sent down a tougher statement,
(O you who believe! Approach not the Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state until you know (the meaning of) what you utter.)4:43 xThen, the people would drink before the time of the prayer so that they would attend the prayer while sober. A firmer Ayah was later revealed,
(O you who believe! Khamr, Maysir, Ansab, and Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful.)5:90-91 So they said, `We abstained, O Lord!' Later, some people said, `O Allah's Messenger! Some people died in the cause of Allah, while some others died in their beds, but they used to drink alcohol and indulge in gambling, which Allah has made a Rijs of the work of Shaytan.' So Allah sent down,
(Had they been made impermissible for them, they would have abandoned them as you have abandoned them.) Ahmad recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "O Allah! Explain the verdict about Khamr to us clearly.'' The Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed,
(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin.'')2:219 `Umar was summoned and this Ayah was recited to him, but he still said, "O Allah! Make the verdict of Khamr clear to us.'' Then the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed,
(O you who believe! Do not approach the Salah when you are in a drunken state.)4:43 Thereafter, the Prophet had someone herald when it was time to pray, "Those in a drunken state are not to approach the prayer.'' `Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him, but he still said, "O Allah! Make the verdict concerning Khamr clear to us.'' Then, the Ayah in Surat Al-Ma'idah 5:91 was revealed, and `Umar was summoned and it was recited to him. When he reached the part of the Ayah that reads,
فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
(So, will you not then abstain)5:91, `Umar said, "We abstained, we abstained.'' Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith. `Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said in a speech; while standing on the Minbar of the Messenger of Allah (in the Prophet's Masjid in Al-Madinah) "O people! The prohibition of Khamr was revealed; and Khamr was extracted from five things: From grapes, dates, honey, wheat and barley. Khamr is what intoxicates the mind.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "The prohibition of Khamr was revealed when there were five kinds of intoxicants in Al-Madinah, besides what was produced from grapes.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "I once was giving an alcoholic beverage to Abu `Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah, `Ubayy bin Ka`b, Suhayl bin Bayda' and several of their friends meeting at Abu Talhah's house. When they were almost intoxicated, some Muslims came and said, `Did you not know that Khamr has been prohibited' They said, `We'll wait and ask.' They then said, `O Anas! Spill the remaining alcohol out of your container.' By Allah! They never drank it again, and their Khamr at that time was made from unripe and normal dates.''' This is also recorded in the Two Sahihs. In another narration by Anas, "I was the butler of the people in the house of Abu Talhah when Khamr was prohibited, and in those days alcohol was made from unripe and normal dates. A caller then heralded, and Abu Talhah ordered me to see what it was about. So I found that a person was announcing that alcoholic drinks had been prohibited. Abu Talhah ordered me to go out and spill the wine. I went out and spilled it, and it flowed in the streets of Al-Madinah. Some people said, `Some people were killed and wine was still in their stomachs.' Later on, Allah's revelation came,
(Those who believe and do righteous good deeds, there is no sin on them for what they ate...)5:93.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "I was serving Abu Talhah, Abu `Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah, Abu Dujanah, Mu`adh bin Jabal and Suhayl bin Bayda', until they became intoxicated from an alcoholic drink made of mixed unripe and normal dates. Then I heard someone herald, `Khamr has been made illegal.' So no one went in or out until we spilled the alcohol and broke its barrels. Some of us then performed ablution and others took a shower, and we wore some perfume. We then went out to the Masjid while the Messenger of Allah was reciting,
(Ten matters related to Khamr were cursed. Khamr itself was cursed, whoever drinks it, its server, seller, buyer, brewer, who asks for it to be brewed, whoever carries it, whomever it is carried to and whoever consumes its price.) Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith. Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "Once, the Messenger of Allah went out and I went out with him. I walked to his right, but Abu Bakr came along and I gave way to him, and Abu Bakr was walking on the Prophet's right, while I was walking on his left. Then `Umar came along and he was walking on the Prophet's left, since I gave way to him. The Messenger of Allah then found a leather skin hanging containing alcohol, so he asked for a knife and ordered that the skin be cut open. He then said,
(Khamr was cursed, and so are those who drink it, serve it, sell it, buy it, carry it, have it carried to them, brew it, have it brewed and consume its price.)''
Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Sa`d said, "There were four Ayat revealed about Khamr...'' He then said, "A man from Al-Ansar made some food and invited us. We drank Khamr before it was prohibited and became intoxicated, and thus started to boast about our status. The Ansar said that they were better, while Quraysh (the Muhajirin) said that they were better. So a man from the Ansar took a bone and struck Sa`d's nose with it and made a flesh wound on it. Ever since that happened, Sa`d's nose had a scar from that wound. The Ayah,
إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ
(Intoxicants, gambling,) until,
فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
(So, will you not then abstain) was later revealed.'' Muslim recorded this Hadith.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, "This Ayah in the Qur'an,
(O you who believe! Khamr, Maysir, Ansab, and Azlam are only an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful.)5:90, was also in the Tawrah; `Allah has sent down truth to eradicate falsehood, joyful play, flute or wind instruments, Zafan (dances) and Kibarat (refering to cabarets using the lute and bagpipe), tambourine, guitar, harp and lyric and love poetry. And Khamr is bitter for those who taste it. Allah has vowed by His grace and power, `Whoever drinks it after I prohibited it, I will make him thirsty on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever abandons it after I prohibited it, I will let him taste it in the residence of Grace (Paradise).''' Its chain of narration is Sahih
Ash-Shafi`i narrated that Malik narrated that Nafi` said that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever drinks Khamr in the life of this world and does not repent from it, will be deprived of it in the Hereafter.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith. Muslim recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Every intoxicant is Khamr, and every intoxicant is unlawful. Whoever drinks Khamr and dies while addicted to it, without repenting from drinking it, will not drink it in the Hereafter.) `Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Harith bin Hisham said that he heard `Uthman bin `Affan saying, "Avoid Khamr, for it is the mother of all sins. There was a man before your time who used to worship Allah secluded from the people. Later, an evil woman loved him and sent her female servant to him saying that they wanted him to witness something. So he went with the servant. Whenever they went through the door, she locked it behind them, until he reached a beautiful woman with a young servant boy and some alcohol. She said to him, `By Allah! I did not invite you to be a witness for anything, but called you to have sex with me, kill this boy or drink this alcohol.' So she gave him some alcohol, and he kept asking for more until he became intoxicated and had sex with her and killed the boy. Therefore, avoid Khamr, because it is never combined with faith, but one of them is bound to expel the other (from the heart).'' This was recorded by Al-Bayhaqi. This statement has an authentic chain of narration. Abu Bakr bin Abi Ad-Dunya recorded this statement in his book on the prohibition of intoxicants, but he related it from the Prophet. Relating it from `Uthman is more authentic, and Allah knows best. Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "When Khamr was prohibited, some people said, `O Allah's Messenger! What about our brethren who died while still drinking Khamr' Allah sent down the Ayah
(Those who believe and do righteous good deeds, there is no sin on them for what they ate,) until the end of the Ayah. When the Qiblah (direction of the prayer) was changed (from Jerusalem to Makkah), some people asked, `O Allah's Messenger! What about our brethren who died while still praying toward Jerusalem' Allah sent down,
وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَـنَكُمْ
(And Allah would never make your faith to be lost.)''2:143 `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Prophet said when the Ayah,
(There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past)) [5:93]. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Mutawwi‘i informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Abu Ya‘la> Abu’l-Rabi‘ Sulayman ibn Dawud al-‘Ataki> Hammad> Thabit> Anas who said: “I was serving people wine in the house of Abu Talhah when intoxicants were made unlawful. Their wine was made from unripe dates, split unripe dates and dates. We heard a crier announcing that intoxicants were made unlawful. And so wine started flowing in the streets of Medina. Abu Talhah said: ‘Go out and spill it’, and so I spilled it. But then one of the people said: ‘So-and-so and so-and-so were killed with wine in their bellies’. As a result, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past))”. Narrated by Muslim from Abu’l-Rabi‘ and by Bukhari from Abu Nu‘man and both Abu’l-Rabi‘ and Abu Nu‘man narrated it from Hammad. Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Muzakki informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Matar> Abu Khalifah> Abu’l-Walid Shu‘bah> Abu Ishaq> al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib who said: “A group of Companions of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, died while still drinking wine. When intoxicants were made unlawful, some said: ‘What will happen to our companions? They have died while still drinking wine’. And so this verse was revealed: (There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past))”.