Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Then Allah revealed about 'Abdullah Ibn Salam and his companions-Asad, Usayd, Tha'labah Ibn Qays and others-when they were shunned by the Jews, saying: (Your friend) your protector, helper and intimate companion (can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe) i.e. Abu Bakr and his companions, (who establish worship) the five daily prayers (and pay the poor-due) from their wealth, (and bow down (in prayer)) in the five daily prayers in congregation with the Prophet (pbuh).
Abū Saʿīd Kharrāz said, " When God desires to take one of His servants as a friend, He opens for him the door to His remembrance. When he takes pleasure in the remembrance, He opens for him the door to proximity. Then He lifts him up to the sitting place of intimacy. Then He seats him on the throne of tawḤīd. Then He lifts the veils from him, puts him into the abode of solitariness, and unveils majesty and tremendousness to him. When his eyesight falls on majesty and tremendousness, he remains without himself. At this point he becomes a servant in annihilation, so he falls under His protection and is rid of the claims of his soul. "
Abū Saʿīd is saying, " When God wants to choose a servant and make him His friend among His servants, the first caress that He places upon him is to keep him in His remembrance such that he turns away from his own work toward the Real's work and turns away from remembering himself to remembering the Real. He comes forth from love for himself to love for the Real. Once he is at rest in remembering and loving the Real, He brings him near to Himself. The mark of nearness is the sweetness of obedience, dislike of disobedience, retiring from the people, and pleasure in seclusion. Then He sits him in the sitting place of seclusion, on the carpet of inti-
macy, on the throne of tawḤīd, free of creatures, happy with the Real, unsettled in passion, the veils lifted, brought into the playing field of solitariness, with majesty and tremendousness unveiled. He is a stranger to himself, one with the Real, consumed within himself, having reached the Patron. " He keeps on saying, " With reports I went forth seeking certainty, fear my resource, hope my companion. The goal was hidden from me and I was striving in the religion. All at once the lightning of self-disclosure flashed from ambush. With thought they see days like that, with the Friend like this. "
Listen with your spirit to these words spoken beautifully by the Pir of the Tariqah: " O most generous supervisor! O most merciful Fount of Bounty! O veiled by majesty and disclosed by generosity, apportioner before Tablet and Pen, displayer of the celebration of guidance after a thousand misfortunes! May I be delivered one day from the bother of Eve and Adam and be freed from the bonds of existence and nonexistence! May I remove this remorse and regret from my heart and take ease with the Beloved for a breath, the cup of happiness in hand again and again in the sitting place of intimacy! "
How long talk of Adam's attributes and creation?
How long debate about the world's time and eternity?
How long ambushing the servants, how long not disowning the world and Adam?
When [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Salām said, ‘O Messenger of God, our people have shunned us’, the following was revealed: Your patron is God only, and His Messenger, and the believers who establish prayer and pay the alms, bowing down, humble, or performing voluntary prayers.
Your patron is only God and His Messenger, and those who are believers. The mutual incompatibility in reality between you [and the two mentioned] is of no consequence. In other words, God, His Messenger and the believers will be your guardians; or God and His friends from among the Messenger and the believers shall not be the patrons of those who are veiled because of the contrareity between them in reality. It is you, plural, who affiliate with God and His Messenger and the believers, first by affirming their affiliation with God in an absolute way, then by separating it outwardly. He says and the Meessenger and the believers in the same way that He did in regard to the testimony of the faith where He says God bears witness that there is no god except Him [and the angels and those of knowledge] [Q. 3:18]; those who, are believers, establish, the prayer of presential vision and the essential presence, and pay the alms, of the [untransformed] remnants, bowing down, submissive in their subsistence in God by ascribing their perfections and attributes to God - as is the case with the Commander of the Believers, peace be upon him, regarding whom the following saying came down: 'There is no god except God [even] after the annihilation of creatures' - not established in the station of tyrannical insolence by ascribing these [perfections and attributes] to their own souls.
Threatening to Replace the Believers With Another People if They Revert from Islam
Allah emphasizes His mighty ability and states that whoever reverts from supporting His religion and establishing His Law, then Allah will replace them with whomever is better, mightier and more righteous in Allah's religion and Law. Allah said in other Ayat,
(Do you not see that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth If He will, He can remove you and bring (in your place) a new creation! And for Allah that is not hard or difficult.)14:19-20. Verily this is not difficult or hard on Allah. Allah said here,
(humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers.) These are the qualities of perfect believers, as they are humble with their believing brothers and allies, stern with their enemies and adversaries. In another Ayah, Allah said,
(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves.) The Prophet is described as the smiling fighter, smiling to his allies and fighting his enemies. Allah's statement,
(Fighting in the way of Allah, and never fearing the blame of the blamers.) Nothing prevents them from obeying Allah, establishing His Law, fighting His enemies, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Certainly, nothing prevents them from taking this path, neither someone who seeks to hinder them, nor one who blames or chastises them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said, "My Khalil (intimate friend, the Messenger) has commanded me to do seven deeds. He commanded me to love the poor and to be close to them. He commanded me to look at those who are less than me and not those who are above me. He commanded me to keep the relations of the womb, even if they cut it. He commanded me not to ask anyone for anything, to say the truth even if it was bitter, and to not fear the blame of anyone for the sake of Allah. He commanded me to often repeat, `La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (There is no strength or power except from Allah)', for these words are from a treasure under the Throne (of Allah).'' It is confirmed in the Sahih;
«مَا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُؤْمِنِ أَنْ يُذِلَّ نَفْسَه»
(The believer is not required to humiliate himself.) He was asked; "How does one humiliate himself, O Messenger of Allah'' So he replied;
«يَتَحَمَّلُ مِنَ الْبَلَاءِ مَا لَا يُطِيق»
(He takes on tests that he cannot bear.)
ذلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَآءُ
(That is the grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills.) meaning, those who have these qualities, acquired it by Allah's bounty and favor and because He granted them these qualities.
وَاللَّهُ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
(And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower,) His favor is ever extending, and He has perfect knowledge of those who deserve or do not deserve His favor and bounty. Allah's statement,
(those who perform the Salah, and give the Zakah...) referring to the believers who have these qualities and establish the prayer, which is one of the most important pillars of Islam, for it includes worshipping Allah alone without partners. They pay Zakah, which is the right of the creation and a type of help extended to the needy and the poor. As for Allah's statement,
(and they bow down,) some people thought that they give the Zakah while bowing down. If this were the case, then paying the Zakah while bowing would be the best form of giving Zakah. No scholar from whom religious rulings are taken says this, as much as we know. Therefore,
(and they bow down,) means, they attend the prayer in congregation in Allah's Masjids and spend by way of charity on the various needs of Muslims. Allah said;
(Allah has decreed: "Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty. You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Ruh (proof) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow to dwell therein (forever). Allah is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allah. Verily, it is the party of Allah that will be the successful.) Therefore, those who accept the allegiance of Allah - His Messenger and the faithful believers - will gain success in this life and the Hereafter. Hence Allah's statement here,
Your patron is God only, and His Messenger, and the believers…[Sahl] said:The patronage (wilāya) of God is [His] choosing (ikhtiyār) for whomever He has taken under His patronage. Then He informed the Messenger that He is the Patron of the believers. Thus it became incumbent upon him to befriend those who had allied themselves to God, Exalted is He, and those who believed. Then He said:
(Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe…) [5:55]. Said Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah: “‘Abd Allah ibn Sallam went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, some people from Banu Qurayzah and Banu’l-Nadir have deserted us and swore not to keep our company. And we cannot keep the company of your Companions due to the distance separating us’. He then complained about the bad treatment he received from the Jews, and so this verse was revealed. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, read to him, he said: ‘We accept Allah, His Messenger and the believers as guardians’ ”. Al-Kalbi related something close to this and added that the end of the verse was revealed about ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, for he gave his ring to a beggar while he was bowing during prayer. Abu Bakr al-Tamimi informed us> ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ja‘far> al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Hurayrah> ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab> Muhammad ibn al-Aswad> Muhammad ibn Marwan> Muhammad ibn al-Sa’ib> Abu Salih> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “Accompanied by a group of believers from amongst his people, ‘Abd Allah ibn Sallam came to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. They said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, our houses are very far and we have no assembly or a place in which we can gather for chatting. When our people saw that we believed in Allah and His Messenger and confirmed his call, they eschewed us and vowed never to keep our company, speak with us or marry from or into us. This has proved too hard for us’. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, replied: ‘(Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe)’, up to the end of the verse. Then the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, went out to the mosque. Some people were standing in prayer while others were bowing. He saw a beggar in the mosque and he asked him: ‘Did you get something from anyone?’ The beggar replied: ‘Yes, I got a ring of gold’. The Prophet asked him: ‘Who gave it to you?’ The beggar said: ‘That person who is standing in prayer’, and he pointed to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. The Prophet asked him again: ‘In which position did he give it to you?’ The beggar said: ‘He gave it to me while bowing in prayer’. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said ‘Allah is the greatest!’ and then recited (And whoso taketh Allah and His messenger and those who believe for guardian (will know that), lo! the party of Allah, they are the victorious)” [5:56].