The Quran

Commentaries for 5.2

Al Maida (The food) - المائدة

5.2 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(O ye who believe! Profane not Allah's monuments) do not make lawful the abstention from all of Allah's rites (nor the Sacred Month) nor attacking people in the Sacred Month (nor the offerings) nor the taking of offerings which are made to the House (nor the garlands) nor the taking of the garlands which are hung by the advent of the Sacred Month, (nor those repairing to the Sacred House) nor attacking those who head for Allah's Sacred House, i.e. the pilgrims of al-Yamamah-the clan of the idolater Bakr Ibn Wa'il-and the traders of the idolater Shurayh Ibn Dabi'ah, (seeking the grace) provision (and pleasure of Allah) by means of the pilgrimage. It is also said that this means: they seek provision by means of trade and also Allah's pleasure. (But when ye have left the sacred territory) after the days of Tashriq, (then go hunting (if ye will)) if you will, go hunt wild game. (And let not your hatred of a folk) the hatred of the people of Mecca (who (once) stopped your going to the Inviolable Place of Worship) on the Day of al-Hudaybiyyah (seduce you) drive you (to transgress) against the pilgrims of the clan of Bakr Ibn Wa'il; (but help ye one another unto righteousness) acts of obedience (and pious duty) shunning transgressions. (Help not one another unto sin) contraventions (and transgression) against the pilgrims of the clan of Bakr Ibn Wa'il, (but keep your duty to Allah) fear Allah in that which He has commanded and prohibited you. (Lo! Allah is severe in punishment) when He punishes those who abstain from that which He has commanded.
5.2 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
O you who believe, do not profane God’s sacraments (sha‘ā’ir is the plural of sha‘īra), that is, the [ritual] ceremonies of the religion, by hunting [game] while you are on pilgrimage, nor the sacred month, by fighting in it, nor the offering, that is, the boon offered in the [Meccan] Sanctuary, by interfering with it, nor the garlands (qalā’id, is the plural of qilāda, and these, made from the trees around the Sanctuary, were placed around it [the offering] to protect it), in other words, do not interfere with these [offerings] or with those who place them; nor, violate the sanctity of, those repairing, those heading, to the Sacred House, by fighting them [who are], seeking bounty, provision, from their Lord, through commerce, and, His, beatitude, by resorting to Him, as they [the Meccans pagans] falsely claimed (this was abrogated by the barā’a verse [of sūrat al-Tawba, Q. 9:4]). But when you are discharged, from pilgrimage inviolability, then hunt for game (a command denoting permission). And let not hatred (read shana’ānu or shan’ānu) of a people that, because [they], barred you from the Sacred Mosque cause you to commit aggression, against them by killing them or otherwise. Help one another to righteousness, by doing that to which you were enjoined, and piety, by refraining from what you have been forbidden; do not help one another (ta‘āwanū: one of the two original tā’ letters [in tata‘āwanū] has been omitted) to sin, acts of disobedience, and enmity, transgression of God’s bounds. And fear God, fear His punishment by being obedient to Him; surely God is severe in retribution, against those that oppose Him.
5.2 Kashani - Kashani
[O you who believe] do not profane God's sacraments, in the way of the stations and the states by which the state of the wayfarer in his wayfaring is known, such as patience, gratitude, trust, satisfaction and their like. In other words, do not commit the sins of the states and do not infringe the bounds of the station, for these are the sacred waymarks of God's pure religion. Just as these acknowledged places are marked out by the ritual that is performed thereat, such as the circumambulation, the pacing and the sacrifice and others, and [just as] the acknowledged acts of the pilgrimage are waymarks by which the pilgrim perceives his way, so these stations, levels and states are [also] waymarks by which the wayfarer perceives his state. And just as manifestly according to the [divine] law it is not permitted that one change the places of these [waymarks] or infringe its rules, so it is with these [spiritual waymarks] according to the law of the lovers, as is related of one of them who used to talk [at length] about [the station of] patience. When a scorpion pounced onto his leg and began to sting him, he remained as he was and did not cast it off. He was asked about this and said, 'I am ashamed to speak so much of a station then do what it is contrary to it'; nor the sacred month, meaning the moment of entering into pilgrim sanctity for the true pilgrimage, which is the moment of the wayfaring and the arrival, [profaning it] by infrining its bounds and occupying oneself with what is incompatible with it and bars him from his orientation and slows him down in his journeying; nor the offering, nor the prepared soul that is made ready for the sacrificial offering upon arrival at the courtyard of the divine presence, in the way mentioned, [profaning it] by using it for a purpose that distracts it from its path or weakens it, or by making it bear more than it has the capacity for in terms of spiritual discipline such that the person is severed [from the goal of wayfaring] before he has even reached [the desired] locus; nor the garlands, nor what the soul has garlanded itself with of the distinguishing mark of the wayfaring folk and of the [good] customary practices and outward deeds, by abandoning them or changing their condition; nor those repairing to the Sacred House, nor those purposeful seekers who are conscientious and industrious in their wayfaring, by causing them to change or preventing them from [pursuing their] spiritual discipline, or by belittling their resolve by interfering [with them] or reducing [their] ceremonious pacing, giving them the illusion that they have no need for any of that, or by distracting them with what bars them [from their spiritual purpose] or causes them to be idle, while they seek bounty from their Lord, by means of the self-disclosures of the acts, and beatitude, by means of the self-disclosures of the attributes.
But when you are discharged, upon the return to subsistence after annihilation and uprightness, then hunt for game, that is, then you would not be at fault with regard to [enjoying] the shares. Nay, it may well be that permitting the soul to enjoy its shares is of assistance to it in its witnessings and unveilings given its nobleness, astuteness and its intense purity. And let not hatred of a people, to the end [of the verse]: that is, let not some ego-centric faculties that impede you from your wayfaring lead you to vanquish these [faculties] totally by preventing them from the rights to which they are entitled so that you end up invalidating these [duties] or impairing them from [receiving] these benefits and what is required of their acts as a result of your barring of them, for the evil consequence of such will fall on you; or [the verse means] let not the enmity of some from among your folk or kin or friends, because they have prevented you from disengagement or from spiritual discipline in the wayfaring, cause you to commit aggression, against them by way of causing them harm or loathing them or desiring that evil befall them, for that will cause more harm to you in terms of your wayfaring than their prevention of you. Help one another to righteousness and piety, by controlling these faculties and managing them delicately by being kind to them with regard to what they are entitled to and by preventing them from their shares, or by being considerate towards relatives, kin and friends by being indulging them and being kind to them and honouring duties towards them even as you do not obey them concerning that which would prevent you from such [righteousness and piety], avoiding it as God, exalted be He, says: then do not obey them, but keep company with them in this world honourably [Q. 31:15]. And fear God, by making [fear of Him] a means of protection [from error] for you in such matters and be wary of contravening Him in such [matters]; surely God is severe in retribution, requiting you with sanction and privation.
5.1-2 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that a man came to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and said to him, "Advise me.'' He said, "When you hear Allah's statement,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ
(O you who believe!) then pay full attention, for it is a righteous matter that He is ordaining or an evil thing that He is forbidding.'' Khaythamah said, "Everything in the Qur'an that reads,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ
(O you who believe!) reads in the Tawrah, `O you who are in need.''' Allah said,
أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ
(Fulfill (your) obligations.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that `obligations' here means treaties. Ibn Jarir mentioned that there is a consensus for this view. Ibn Jarir also said that it means treaties, such as the alliances that they used to conduct. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented:
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ
(O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations.) "Refers to the covenants, meaning, what Allah permitted, prohibited, ordained and set limits for in the Qur'an. Therefore, do not commit treachery or break the covenants. Allah emphasized this command when He said,
وَالَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَـقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ
(And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification, and sever that which Allah has commanded to be joined,) until,
سُوءُ الدَّارِ
(unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell).)'' Ad-Dahhak said that,
أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ
(Fulfill your obligations.) "Refers to what Allah has permitted and what He has prohibited. Allah has taken the covenant from those who proclaim their faith in the Prophet and the Book to fulfill the obligations that He has ordered for them in the permissible and the impermissible.''
Explaining the Lawful and the Unlawful Beasts
Allah said,
أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الاٌّنْعَامِ
(Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle) camels, cows and sheep, as Al-Hasan, Qatadah and several others stated. Ibn Jarir said that this Tafsir conforms to the meaning of (`beasts of cattle') that the Arabs had. We should mention that Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas and others relied on this Ayah as evidence to allow eating the meat of the fetus if it is found dead in the belly of its slaughtered mother. There is a Hadith to the same effect collected in the Sunan of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and narrated by Abu Sa`id who said, "We asked, `O Messenger of Allah! When we slaughter a camel, cow or sheep, we sometimes find a fetus in its belly, should we discard it or eat its meat' He said,
«كُلُوهُ إِنْ شِئْتُمْ فَإِنَّ ذَكَاتَهُ ذَكَاةُ أُمِّه»
(Eat it if you want, because its slaughter was fulfilled when its mother was slaughtered.)'' At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan.'' Abu Dawud recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«ذَكَاةُ الْجَنِينِ ذَكَاةُ أُمِّه»
(Proper slaughter of the fetus is fulfilled with the slaughter of its mother.) Only Abu Dawud collected this narration. Allah's statement,
إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ
(except that which will be announced to you (herein), ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it refers to, "The flesh of dead animals, blood and the meat of swine.'' Qatadah said, "The meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered without Allah's Name being pronounced at the time of slaughtering.'' It appears, and Allah knows best, that the Ayah refers to Allah's other statement,
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالْدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَآ أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ
(Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine, and what has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal.)5:3, for although the animals mentioned in this Ayah are types of permissible cattle (except for swine), they become impermissible under the circumstances that the Ayah 5:3 specifies. This is why Allah said afterwards,
إِلاَّ مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ
(Unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars)) as the latter type is not permissible, because it can no longer be slaughtered properly. Hence, Allah's statement,
أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الاٌّنْعَامِ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ
(Lawful to you are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you, ) means, except the specific circumstances that prohibit some of these which will be announced to you. Allah said,
غَيْرَ مُحِلِّى الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ
(game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihram.) Some scholars said that the general meaning of `cattle' includes domesticated cattle, such as camels, cows and sheep, and wild cattle, such as gazzelle, wild cattle and wild donkeys. Allah made the exceptions mentioned above (dead animals blood, flesh of swine etc.), and prohibited hunting wild beasts while in the state of Ihram. It was also reported that the meaning here is, "We have allowed for you all types of cattle in all circumstances, except what We excluded herewith for the one hunting game while in the state of Ihram.'' Allah said,
فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, then, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) This Ayah means, "We allowed eating the meat of dead animals, when one is forced by necessity, under the condition that one is not transgressing the limits or overstepping them.'' Here, Allah states, "Just as We allowed the meat of cattle in all conditions and circumstances, then do not hunt game when in the state of Ihram, for this is the decision of Allah, Who is the Most Wise in all that He commands and forbids.'' So Allah said;
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ
(Verily, Allah commands that which He wills.)
The Necessity of Observing the Sanctity of the Sacred Area and the Sacred Months
Allah continues,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُحِلُّواْ شَعَآئِرَ اللَّهِ
(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of Sha'a'ir Allah (the symbols of Allah),) Ibn `Abbas said, "Sha`a'ir Allah means the rituals of Hajj.'' Mujahid said, "As-Safa and Al-Marwah, and the sacrificial animal are the symbols of Allah.'' It was also stated that Sha`a'ir Allah is what He prohibited. Therefore, it means, do not violate what Allah prohibited. Allah said afterwards,
وَلاَ الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ
(nor of the Sacred Month,) for you are required to respect and honor the Sacred Month and to refrain from what Allah forbade during it, such as fighting. This also lays emphasis on avoiding sins during that time. As Allah said;
يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ
(They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Month. Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression).'') and,
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْراً
(Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year). ) Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Bakrah said that the Messenger of Allah said during the Farewell Hajj,
«إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْئَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَواتِ وَالْأَرْضَ السَّنَةُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا، مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ، ثَلَاثٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ: ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ، وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان»
(The division of time has returned as it was when Allah created the Heavens and the earth. The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred: Three are in succession, (they are:) Dhul-Qa'dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha'ban.) This Hadith testifies to the continued sanctity of these months until the end of time.
Taking the Hady to the Sacred House of Allah, Al-Ka`bah
Allah's statement,
وَلاَ الْهَدْىَ وَلاَ الْقَلَـئِدَ
(nor of the Hady brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands,) means, do not abandon the practice of bringing the Hady (sacrificial animals) to the Sacred House, as this ritual is a form of honoring the symbols of Allah. Do not abandon the practice of garlanding these animals on their necks, so that they are distinguished from other cattle. This way, it will be known that these animals are intended to be offered as Hady at the Ka`bah, and thus those who might intend some harm to them would refrain from doing so. Those who see the Hady might be encouraged to imitate this ritual, and indeed, he who calls to a type of guidance, will earn rewards equal to the rewards of those who follow his lead, without decrease in their own rewards. When the Messenger of Allah intended to perform Hajj, he spent the night at Dhul-Hulayfah, which is also called Wadi Al-`Aqiq. In the morning, the Prophet made rounds with his wives, who were nine at that time, performed Ghusl (bath), applied some perfume and performed a two Rak`ah prayer. He then garlanded the Hady and announced aloud his intention to perform Hajj and `Umrah. The Prophet's Hady at the time consisted of plenty of camels, more than sixty, and they were among the best animals, the healthiest and most physically acceptable, just as Allah's statement proclaims,
ذلِكَ وَمَن يُعَظِّمْ شَعَـئِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِن تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ
(Thus it is, and whosoever honors the symbols of Allah, then it is truly, from the piety of the hearts.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said that Allah's statement,
وَلاَ الْقَلَـئِدَ
(nor the garlands) means, "Do not breach their sanctity.'' During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to garland themselves with animal hair and pelts when they left their areas in months other than the Sacred Months. The idolators of the Sacred House Area used to garland themselves with the tree-stems of the Sacred Area, so that they were granted safe passage.'' This statement was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "There are two Ayat in this Surah (Al-Ma'idah) that were abrogated, the Ayah about the garlands 5:2, and
فَإِن جَآءُوكَ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ أَوْ أَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ
(So if they come to you (O Muhammad ), either judge between them, or turn away from them.)''
The Necessity of Preserving the Sanctity and Safety of those who Intend to Travel to the Sacred House
Allah said,
وَلا ءَامِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَناً
(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.) The Ayah commands: Do not fight people who are heading towards the Sacred House of Allah, which if anyone enters it, he must be granted safe refuge. Likewise, those who are heading towards the Sacred House seeking the bounty and good pleasure of Allah, must not be stopped, prevented, or frightened away from entering the Sacred House. Mujahid, `Ata', Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mutarrif bin `Abdullah, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and several others said that,
يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ
(seeking the bounty of their Lord.) refers to trading. A similar discussion preceded concerning the Ayah;
لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading).) Allah said;
وَرِضْوَناً
(and pleasure. ) Ibn `Abbas said that the word `pleasure' in the Ayah refers to, "seeking Allah's pleasure by their Hajj.'' `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ibn Jarir mentioned that this Ayah was revealed concerning Al-Hutam bin Hind Al-Bakri, who had raided the cattle belonging to the people of Al-Madinah. The following year, he wanted to perform `Umrah to the House of Allah and some of the Companions wanted to attack him on his way to the House. Allah revealed,
وَلا ءَامِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَناً
(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.)
Hunting Game is Permissible After Ihram Ends
Allah said,
وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَـدُواْ
(But when you finish the Ihram, then hunt,) When you end your Ihram, it is permitted for you to hunt game, which was prohibited for you during Ihram. Although this Ayah contains a command that takes effect after the end of a state of prohibition (during Ihram in this case), the Ayah, in fact, brings back the ruling that was previously in effect. If the previous ruling was an obligation, the new command will uphold that obligation, and such is the case with recommended and permissible matters. There are many Ayat that deny that the ruling in such cases is always an obligation. Such is also the case against those who say that it is always merely allowed. What we mentioned here is the correct opinion that employs the available evidence, and Allah knows best.
Justice is Always Necessary
Allah said,
وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَن تَعْتَدُواْ
(and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part).) The meaning of this Ayah is apparent, as it commands: Let not the hatred for some people, who prevented you from reaching the Sacred House in the year of Hudaybiyyah, make you transgress Allah's Law and commit injustice against them in retaliation. Rather, rule as Allah has commanded you, being just with every one. We will explain a similar Ayah later on,
وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ اعْدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى
(And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety,) which commands: do not be driven by your hatred for some people into abandoning justice, for justice is ordained for everyone, in all situations. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, "The Messenger of Allah and his Companions were in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the idolators prevented them from visiting the House, and that was especially hard on them. Later on, some idolators passed by them from the east intending to perform `Umrah. So the Companions of the Prophet said, `Let us prevent those (from `Umrah) just as their fellow idolators prevented us.' Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah.'' Ibn Abbas and others said that "Shana'an'' refers to enmity and hate. Allah said next,
وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ
(Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa; but do not help one another in sin and transgression.) Allah commands His believing servants to help one another perform righteous, good deeds, which is the meaning of `Al-Birr', and to avoid sins, which is the meaning of `At-Taqwa'. Allah forbids His servants from helping one another in sin, `Ithm' and committing the prohibitions. Ibn Jarir said that, "Ithm means abandoning what Allah has ordained, while transgression means overstepping the limits that Allah set in your religion, along with overstepping what Allah has ordered concerning yourselves and others.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«انْصُرْ أَخَاكَ ظَالِمًا أَوْ مَظْلُومًا»
(Support your brother whether he was unjust or the victim of injustice.) He was asked, "O Messenger of Allah! We know about helping him when he suffers injustice, so what about helping him when he commits injustice'' He said,
«تَحْجُزُهُ وَتَمْنَعُهُ مِنَ الظُّلْمِ فَذَاكَ نَصْرُه»
(Prevent and stop him from committing injustice, and this represents giving support to him.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Hushaym. Ahmad recorded that one of the Companions of the Prophet narrated the Hadith,
«الْمُؤْمِنُ الَّذِي يُخَالِطُ النَّاسَ وَيَصْبِرُ عَلَى أَذَاهُمْ أَعْظَمُ أَجْرًا مِنَ الَّذِي لَا يُخَالِطُ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَصْبِرُ عَلى أَذَاهُم»
(The believer who mingles with people and is patient with their annoyance, earns more reward than the believer who does not mingle with people and does not observe patience with their annoyance.) Muslim recorded a Hadith that states,
«مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى هُدًى كَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أُجُورِ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يَنْقُصُ ذلِكَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئًا، وَمَنْ دَعَا إِلَى ضَلَالَةٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ مِثْلُ آثَامِ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، لَا يَنْقُصُ ذلِكَ مِنْ آثَامِهِمْ شَيْئًا»
(He who calls to a guidance, will earn a reward similar to the rewards of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their rewards. Whoever calls to a heresy, will carry a burden similar to the burdens of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their own burdens.)
5.2 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Sha a-ir is the plural of shi- ar (emblem). Every object or a representation of it, that symbolizes a way or a creed or a mode of thought or action or a system is called its shi'-ar because it serves as an emblem of it. Official flags,police and army uniforms, coins, currency notes, stamps etc., are the sha "a-ir of governments which demand due respect for these from all under them, and, as far as possible, from others as well. For instance, Temple. Altar, Cross etc., are the.sha'a-ir of Christianity. the Hammer and Sickle is the shi-'ar of the Communist Party, and- the Swastika of the Nazi Party. AlI of them demand reverence and respect for their emblems from their followers. If anyone shows disrespect for any of the emblems of any system, it is an indication that he has enmity with that system and it the offender belongs to the same system, this act will be tantamount to apostasy and rebellion against it.
The Sha a-ir-Allah (Emblems of Allah) are those signs and symbols that represent the pure way of God-worship as against the ways of idolatry, unbelief, paganism and atheism. The Muslims are required to show respect to the emblems of Allah wherever they find them in any way or system, provided that their psychological background is purely attributed to God-worship and has not in any way been polluted by any association with idolatry or unbelief. Therefore, if a Muslim comes across anything in the creed and deed of a non-Muslim which has an element of God-worship in it, he will show due respect to that element and to the emblems connected with God-worship. There will be no dispute with the non Muslims on that account: a dispute arises only when he pollutes God-worship with the worship of others.
In this connection, it should be noted that the command to show due respect to the emblems of Allah was given at a time when the Muslims were at war with the pagan Arabs who were in possession of Makkah. This was necessitated because some of the pagan Arabs had to pass on their way to the Ka'abah through places where the Muslims could strike at them easily. Therefore the Muslims were enjoined not to molest them when they were proceeding to the House of Allah, even though they were idolaters and at war with them. Like wise, the Muslims should not attack them during the months of Hajj nor snatch from them those animals, which they were taking to the House of Allah as offering. This is to ensure that the element of God-worship, which had.remained intact in their corrupt religion, should be respected and not violated
Immediately after this Command, a few emblems of Allah have been specially mentioned because there was an imminent danger of their violation by the Muslims owing to the state of war. This does not, however, mean that these emblems alone are to be respected.
Incidentally the command about ihram has been given here because this is also one of the emblems of Allah. Hunting during the state of ihram is prohibited, because it is the violation of one of the emblems of Allah. But when the restrictions of ihram come to an end according to the law, one is permitted to hunt, if one desires to do so.
This prohibition was laid down to check the Muslims from preventing the pagan Arabs from proceeding to Hajj and attacking them when they were passing through their territories. The Muslims had been so enraged when their enemies had prevented them from visiting the Ka'abah and from the performance of Hajj in contravention of their old custom that they were prone to retaliate, but Allah warned them not to transgress the bounds.
5.2 Tustari - Al-Tustari
…Help one another to righteousness and mindfulness of God…He said:Righteousness (birr) is obedience to God and being on one’s guard against disobedience.His words, Exalted is He,
5.2 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
(O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments…) [5:2]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “This was revealed about al-Hutam whose full name is Sharih ibn Dubay‘ah al-Kindi. This man went from al-Yamamah to Medina to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and his Household and give him peace. When he arrived at Medina, he went in alone to speak with the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He said: ‘What do you call people for?’ he said: ‘To testify that there is no god but Allah, to establish the prayer and to pay the poor due’. The man said: ‘This is good, except that I have chiefs without whose consultation I cannot take any decision. It may be that I embrace Islam and bring them with me’. And then he left. Before this, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, had said to his Companions: ‘A man will enter in on you and will speak with the tongue of the devil’. When the man left, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘He has come in with a disbeliever’s countenance and retreated with the steps of a treacherous one. The man is no Muslim’. The man passed by the camels of Medina which graze freely and led them away with him. People went after him but could not find him. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace went to perform the pilgrimage in the year of Hudaybiyyah, he heard the chanting “Labbayk” from the pilgrims of al-Yamamah. He said to his Companions: ‘Here is al-Hutam and his followers!’ This man had put garlands on the camels he stole from Medina and offered them to the Ka‘bah. When the Muslims wanted to get him, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments…), by monuments here is meant that which is offered for Allah, even if those who offer it profess a religion other than Islam”. Said Zayd ibn Aslam: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and his Household and give him peace, and his Companions were in Hudaybiyyah when the idolaters barred them from entering the Sacred House. The Muslims were devastated. Then, a group of idolaters passed by them, they were in their way to perform the lesser pilgrimage. Some of the Companions of the Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘Let us bar these people as their friends have barred us. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments nor the Sacred Month nor the offerings nor the garlands, nor those repairing to the Sacred House)’, i.e. do not transgress against these pilgrims because their friends have barred you from entering the Sacred House”.