The Quran

Commentaries for 5.117

Al Maida (The food) - المائدة

5.117 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(I spake unto them) in the life of this world (only that which Thou commandedst me, (saying): Worship Allah) declare Allah's divine Oneness and obey Him, (my Lord and your Lord) He is my Lord and yours. (I was a witness of them) by conveying the message (while I dwelt among them, and when Thou tookest me) when you raised from amongst them (Thou wast the Watcher over them) You were the Protector and Witness of them. (Thou art Witness over all things) of what I said and what they said.
5.117 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
I only said to them that which You commanded me, to [say], and that is: “Worship God, my Lord and your Lord.” And I was a witness, a watcher, over them, preventing them from [saying] what they used to say, whilst I was amongst them; but when You took me [to You], [when] You raised me up to the heaven, You were Yourself the Watcher over them, the Observer of their deeds, and You Yourself are Witness over all things, Aware and knowing them, including what I said to them and what they said after me, and whatever else.
5.117 Kashani - Kashani
I only said to them, and I only commanded them that which You have charged me with saying and which you have obliged me to [say]: “Worship God, my Lord and your Lord”. In other words, I only called them to the union in the form of differentiation, the relationship of whose lordliness to all is equal. But they fell into error and saw that [lordliness] in only some of the differentiations because of the narrowness of their [spiritual] receptacles. And I was a witness over them, a watcher, present, looking after them and teaching them, whilst I was amongst them, that is, while there remained in me the existence of some remnant, but when You took me [to You], [but when] You annihilated me totally in You, You were Yourself the Watcher over them, given my having been annihilated in You, and You Yourself are Witness over all things, [You are] present; through You a thing comes into existence, for otherwise that thing would not be.
5.116-118 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
`Isa Rejects Shirk and Affirms Tawhid
Allah will also speak to His servant and Messenger, `Isa son of Maryam, peace be upon him, saying to him on the Day of Resurrection in the presence of those who worshipped `Isa and his mother as gods besides Allah,
يعِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَءَنتَ قُلتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِى وَأُمِّىَ إِلَـهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ
(O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: `Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah') This is a threat and a warning to Christians, chastising them in public, as Qatadah and others said, and Qatadah mentioned this Ayah as evidence,
هَـذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّـدِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ
("This is a Day on which the truthful will profit from their truth.'') 5:119 Allah's statement,
سُبْحَـنَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِى أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِى بِحَقٍّ
(Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say)...) contains Allah's direction for `Isa to utter the perfect answer. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "`Isa will be taught his argument in reply to what Allah will ask him,
وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يعِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَءَنتَ قُلتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِى وَأُمِّىَ إِلَـهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ
(And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): "O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: `Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah') 5:116.'' Abu Hurayrah then narrated that the Prophet said that Allah taught `Isa to say,
سُبْحَـنَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِى أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِى بِحَقٍّ
(Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say)...) Ath-Thawri narrated this Hadith from Ma`mar from Ibn Tawus from Tawus. `Isa's statement,
إِن كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ
(Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it.) means, had I said it, You, my Lord, would have known it, for nothing escapes Your knowledge. Rather, I have not said these words nor did the thought even cross my mind, this why he said,
تَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى نَفۡسِى وَلَآ أَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى نَفۡسِكَ‌ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّـٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ • مَا قُلۡتُ لَهُمۡ إِلَّا مَآ أَمَرۡتَنِى بِهِ
(You know what is in my inner self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the Knower of all that is hidden and unseen. Never did I say to them ought except what You (Allah) did command me to say...) and convey,
أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّكُمْ
(Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.) I only called them to what You sent me with and commanded me to convey to them,
أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّكُمْ
(Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord) and this is what I conveyed to them,
وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيداً مَّا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ
(And I was a witness over them while I dwelled amongst them,) I was a witness over what they did when I was amongst them,
فَلَمَّا تَوَفَّيْتَنِى كُنتَ أَنتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنتَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيدٌ
(but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things.) Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah stood up once and gave us a speech in which he said,
«يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّكُمْ مَحْشُورُونَ إِلَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حُفَاةً، عُرَاةً، غُرْلا»
ا (O people! You will be gathered to Allah while barefooted, naked and uncircumcised;
كَمَا بَدَأْنَآ أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُّعِيدُهُ
(As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it.)
«وَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ الْخَلَائِقِ يُكْسَى يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِبْرَاهِيمُ، أَلَا وَإِنَّهُ يُجَاءُ بِرِجَالٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِي فَيُؤْخَذُ بِهِمْ ذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ، فَأَقُولُ: أَصْحَابِي، فَيُقَالُ:إِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِي مَا أَحْدَثُوا بَعْدَكَ، فَأَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ الْعَبْدُ الصَّالِح»
The first among the creation who will be covered with clothes will be Ibrahim. Some men from my Ummah will be brought and taken to the left (to the Fire) and I will yell, `They are my followers!' It will be said, `You do not know what they innvovated after you (in religion).' So I will say just as the righteous servant (`Isa) said,
مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلاَّ مَآ أَمَرْتَنِى بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّكُمْ وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيداً مَّا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ فَلَمَّا تَوَفَّيْتَنِى كُنتَ أَنتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنتَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيدٌ - إِن تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ وَإِن تَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
(And I was a witness over them while I dwelled amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things. If You punish them, they are Your servants, and if You forgive them, verily You, only You are the Almighty, the All-Wise.)
«فَيُقَالُ: إِنَّ هؤُلَاءِ لَمْ يَزَالُوا مُرْتَدِّينَ عَلَى أَعْقَابِهِمْ مُنْذُ فَارَقْتَهُم»
(It will further be said, `These people kept reverting back on their heels after you left them.')'' Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith in the explanation of this Ayah. Allah said;
إِن تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ وَإِن تَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
(If You punish them, they are Your servants, and if You forgive them, verily You, only You are the Almighty, the All-Wise.) All matters refer back to Allah, for He does what He Wills and none can question Him about what He does, while He will question them. This Ayah also shows the crime of the Christians who invented a lie against Allah and His Messenger, thus making a rival, wife and son for Allah. Allah is glorified in that He is far above what they attribute to Him. So this Ayah 5:118 has tremendous value and delivers unique news.
قَالَ اللَّهُ هَـذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّـدِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ لَهُمْ جَنَّـتٌ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَداً رَّضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُواْ عَنْهُ ذلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ - للَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
5.115-119 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The Qur'an is silent as to whether the `tray' was sent down or not and there is no other authentic source of information. Possibly it was sent down, but it is equally possible that the Disciples themselves might have taken back their request after the warning in verse 115.
This refers to another error of the Christians. They had made Mary an object of worship along with Christ and the Holy Ghost, though there is not a word or hint in the Bible about this doctrine. During the first three centuries after Christ, the Christian world was totally unaware of this creed. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the words "Mother of God" were used for the first time by some theologians of Alexandria. Though the response which these words found in the popular heart was great, yet the Church was not at first inclined to accept the doctrine and declared that the worship of Mary was a wrong creed. Then at the Council of Ephesus in 431 A.D., the words `Mother of God' were officially used by the Church. As a result `Mariolatry' began to spread by leaps and bounds both inside and outside the Church. So much so that by the time the Qur'an was revealed, the exaltation of the 'Mother of God' had eclipsed the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Her statues were set up in Churches and she was worshiped, implored and invoked in prayers. In short, the greatest source of reliance of a Christian was that he should obtain the help and protection of the `Mother of God.' Emperor Justinian in the preamble to one of his laws bespeaks her advocacy for the empire and his general, Narses, looks to her directions on the battlefield. Emperor Heraclius, a contemporary of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, bore her image on his banner and believed that because of its auspicious nature it will never be lowered. Though the Protestants after the Reformation did their best to fight against Mariolatry, yet the Roman Catholic Church still adheres to it passionately. Al-Ma `idah but it is equally possible that the Disciples themselves might have taken back their request after the warning in verse 115. 130. This refers to another error of the Christians. They had made Mary an object of worship along with Christ and the Holy Ghost, though there is not a word or hint in the Bible about this doctrine. During the first three centuries after Christ, the Christian world was totally unaware of this creed. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the words "Mother of God" were used for the first time by some theologians of Alexandria. Though the response which these words found in the popular heart was great, yet the Church was not at first inclined to accept the doctrine and declared that the worship of Mary was a wrong creed. Then at the Council of Ephesus in 431 A.D., the words `Mother of God' were officially used by the Church. As a result `Mariolatry' began to spread by leaps and bounds both inside and outside the Church. So much so that by the time the Qur'an was revealed, the exaltation of the 'Mother of God' had eclipsed the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Her statues were set up in Churches and she was worshiped, implored and invoked in prayers. In short, the greatest source of reliance of a Christian was that he should obtain the help and protection of the 'Mother of God.' Emperor Justinian in the preamble to one of his laws bespeaks her advocacy for the empire and his general, Narses, looks to her directions on the battlefield. Emperor Heraclius, a contemporary of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, bore her image on his banner and believed that because of its auspicious nature it will never be lowered. Though the Protestants after the Reformation did their best to fight against Mariolatry, yet the Roman Catholic Church still adheres to it passionately.