The Quran

Commentaries for 49.7

Al Hujraat (The apartments) - الحجرات

49.7 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And know) O believers (that the Messenger of Allah is among you) is with you. (If he were to obey you in much of the government) in much of what you request, (ye would surely be in trouble) you would surly sin; (but Allah hath endeared the faith) the belief in Allah and His Messenger (to you and hath beautified it in your hearts) and made it seem good in your hearts, (and hath made disbelief) denial of Allah and His Messenger (and lewdness) hypocrisy (and rebellion) and all transgressions (hateful unto you. Such) those who have such traits (are they who are rightly guided.
49.7 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
And know that the Messenger of God is among you, so do not speak falsehood, for God will inform him of the [real] state of affairs. If he were to obey you in many matters, which you communicate contrary to reality, so that the necessary [evil] consequences ensue, you would surely be in trouble, you would earn in addition to that sin, the sin for the consequences that ensue [from your error]. But God has endeared faith to you, adorning your hearts with it, and He has made odious to you disbelief and immorality and disobedience ([an instance of] suppletion with respect to import, as opposed to [lexical] form; for the one to whom ‘faith has been endeared …’ and so forth, will naturally be dissimilar in character to the mentioned [reprobate]). Those (there is here a shift from the second [to the third] person address) — they are the right-minded, the ones firmly established upon [the way of] their religion;
49.7 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
النَّبِىُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ
(The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves) (33:6). Then He clarifies that they fall short in overseeing their own benefit;
لَوْ يُطِيعُكُمْ فِى كَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ لَعَنِتُّمْ
(7 cont. - If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would surely be in trouble.) `if he obeys all of your opinions and desires, you will earn trouble and hardship.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الْحَقُّ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمَـوَتُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ بَلْ أَتَيْنَـهُمْ بِذِكْرِهِمْ فَهُمْ عَن ذِكْرِهِمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ
(And if the truth had been in accordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted! Nay, We have brought them their reminder, but they turn away from their reminder.) (23:71) Allah's statement,
وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الايمَـنَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ
(7 cont. - But Allah has endeared the faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts,) `made faith dear to your souls and beautified it in your hearts.' Allah said,
وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ
(7 cont. - and has made disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to you.) `He has made disbelief, sins, whether major or minor, and `Isyan -- all types of sins, hateful to you.' This statement transfers us from one level to a better level, to perfect Allah's bounty. Allah's statement next,
أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الرَشِدُونَ
(7 cont. - Such are they who are the rightly guided.) those who have these qualities are the rightly guided ones whom Allah has granted guidance and correctness. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Rifa`ah Az-Zuraqi said that his father said, "During the battle of Uhud, when the idolators retreated, the Messenger of Allah said,
«اسْتَوُوا حَتْى أُثْنِيَ عَلَى رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَل»
(Stay in straight lines so that I praise my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored.) They stood behind him in lines and he said,
«اللْهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ كُلُّهُ، اللْهُمَّ لَا قَابِضَ لِمَا بَسَطْتَ وَلَا بَاسِطَ لِمَا قَبَضْتَ، وَلَا هَادِيَ لِمَنْ أَضْلَلْتَ، وَلَا مُضِلَّ لِمَنْ هَدَيْتَ، وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ، وَلَا مُقَرِّبَ لِمَا بَاعَدْتَ، وَلَا مُبَاعِدَ لِمَا قَرَّبْتَ. اللْهُمَّ ابْسُطْ عَلَيْنَا مِنْ بَرَكَاتِكَ وَرَحْمَتِكَ وَفَضْلِكَ وَرِزْقِكَ، اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ النَّعِيمَ الْمُقِيمَ الَّذِي لَا يَحُولُ وَلَا يَزُولُ. اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ النَّعِيمَ يَوْمَ الْعَيْلَةِ وَالْأَمْنَ يَوْمَ الْخَوْفِ. اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي عَائِذٌ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا أَعْطَيْتَنَا وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا مَنَعْتَنَا. اللْهُمَّ حَبِّبْ إِلَيْنَا الْإيمَانَ وَزَيِّنْهُ فِي قُلُوبِنَا وَكَرِّهْ إِلَيْنَا الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ وَاجْعَلْنَا مِنَ الرَّاشِدِينَ. اللْهُمَّ تَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ وَأَحْيِنَا مُسْلِمِينَ وَأَلْحِقْنَا بِالصَّالِحِينَ غَيْرَ خَزَايَا وَلَا مَفْتُونِينَ، اللْهُمَّ قَاتِلِ الْكَفَرَةَ الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ رُسُلَكَ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِكَ وَاجْعَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزَكَ وَعَذَابَكَ، اللْهُمَّ قَاتِلِ الْكَفَرَةَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلهَ الْحَق»
(O Allah! Your is the praise. O Allah! There is none who can withhold what You send, or send what You withhold, or guide whom You send astray, or misguide whomever You guide, or give what You deprive, or deprive whom You give, or draw closer whom You cast or cast whom You draw closer. O Allah! Bestow on us from Your blessings, mercy, grace and provisions. O Allah! I ask You for the eternal delight that never ends or fades away. O Allah! I ask You for provisions on the Day of deprivation and safety on the Day of fear. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the evil repercussions of what You have given us and from the evil of what You have deprived us of. O Allah! Make faith dear to us and beatify it in our hearts and make disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who deny Your Messengers and hinder others from Your path; send on them Your torment and punishment. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who were given the Scriptures, the True God.)'' An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith in `Amal Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. Allah said,
49.6-8 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Most of the commentators have expressed the view that this verse was sent down concerning Walid bin 'Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait. Its background is this: When the tribe of the Bani al-Mustaliq embraced Islam, the Holy Prophet sent Walid bin `Uqbah to collect the zakat from them. When he arrived in their territory, he became scared due to some reason and without visiting the people of the tribe returned to Madinah and complained to the Holy Prophet that they had refused to pay the zakat and had even wanted to kill him. On hearing this the Holy Prophet became very angry and he made up his mind to dispatch a contingent to punish those people. According to some traditions he had dispatched the contingent, and according to others, he was about to dispatch it. In any case all agree that in the meantime the chief of the Bani al-Mustaliq, Harith bin Dirar (father of Juwairiyah, wife of the Holy Prophet), arrived at the head of a deputation, and submitted: "By God, we did not at all see Walid; therefore, there could be no question of refusing to pay the zakat and wanting to kill him. We arc steadfast to the Faith and have no intention to withhold the zakat. " At this, this verse was sent down. With a little variation in wording this incident has been related by Imam Ahmad, Abi Hatim, Tabarani, and Ibn Jarir, on the authority of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas, Harith bin Dirar, Mujahid, Qatadah, 'Abdur Rehman bin Abi Laila, Yazid bin Ruman, Dahhak and Muqatil bin Hayyan. In the tradition reported by Hadrat Umm Salamah this whole story has been related likewise but there is no reference to the name of Walid.
On this critical occasion when on account of believing in a baseless report a grave blunder was about to be committed, Allah gave the Muslims this guiding principle to be followed on receipt of news: 'Whenever you receive important news bearing upon a vital matter, you should not accept it immediately but should first examine the man who has brought it. If he is an evil man whose report they not be authentic normally, you should inquire into it carefully to ascertain the truth instead of accepting it and acting on it immediately." From this Divine Command An important legal principle is deduced, the sphere of application of which is very vast. According to it, it is not permissible for a Muslim government to take any action against a person or a group or a nation on the basis of the reports provided by the secret agents whose character might be doubtful. On the basis of this very principle the traditionists introduced the art of critical appraisal in the science of Hadith in order to determine the value and worth of the people through whom traditions of the Holy Prophet reached the later generations, and the jurists established this principle in the law of evidence that in a matter from which a Shari'ah value can be deduced, or a duty imposed on a person; the evidence of an evil man would be unacceptable. However, all scholars agree that as far as the common worldly matters are concerned it is not necessary to ascertain the truth of every news and the reliability of every informer. For the word used in the verse is naba'. which does not apply to every news but only to the news of consequence. That is why the jurists say that this principle does not apply in the case of ordinary matters. For example, if a person goes to visit somebody and seeks permission to enter the house, and a person comes out and conveys the permission, he can enter the house accordingly no matter whether the one conveying the permission from the master of the house was good or bad. Likewise, the scholars are also agreed that the evidence, as well as the report, of the people whose evil does not relate to lying and immorality, but they are regarded as unrighteous only on account of false beliefs, will also be acceptable. Only the falsehood of heir creed cannot be a hindrance to accepting their evidence or reports.
This is evident from the context as well as understood by several commentators from this verse that the Holy Prophet was hesitant to take any military action against the Bani al-Mustaliq on the report given by Walid bin 'Uqbah in their case, but some of the people insisted that they should be attacked at once. At this those people were warned that they should not forget that the Holy Prophet was present among them, who understood them better than they did. Therefore, their thinking that the Holy prophet should act according to their counsel in important matters was undue boldness. For if he started acting according to what they counseled it would generally lead to blunders for which they themselves would have to suffer.
It means this: The whole community of the believers has not committed the error that was committed by those few people who wanted the Holy Prophet to act as they counseled, and the believing community s remaining steadfast on the right path was due to the reason that Allah by His bounty and grace had endeared to them the path of the Faith and made unbelief, wrongdoing and disobedience abhorrent to them. The addressees in the two parts of this verse are two separate groups. The sentence beginning with lau yuti'ukum is not addressed to the entire class of the Companions but only to those particular Companions who were insisting that the Bani al-Mustaliq should be attacked at once, and the sentence beginning with wa lakin-nallaha.., is addressed to the general class of the Companions who would never dare insist on their own opinion and view before the Holy Messenger of Allah, but had full faith in his leadership and remained steadfast on the path of obedience, which is, and should he, the demand of true Faith. From this it cannot be concluded that those who had insisted on their own opinion were devoid of the love of the Faith, but what becomes obvious from this is that they had become forgetful of this demand of the Faith because of which they made the error of insisting on their own opinion in the presence of the Holy Prophet. Therefore, Allah first warned them of their error, then of its evil consequences, and finally stated that the right attitude for a believer was the one that had been adopted by the generality of the Companions.
That is, "Allah does not bestow His bounty and favor blindly, but He grants this great blessing to whomever He grants on the basis of wisdom and His knowledge that he is worthy of it. "
49.7 Tustari - Al-Tustari
…God had endeared faith to you and made it beautiful to your hearts…He said:As a kindness (ʿaṭf) from Him, He singled out your hearts for His worship and endowed them with sincerity. [This is so] because being singled out (istikhlāṣ) is from His kindness (ʿaṭf), while [your] sincerity (ikhlāṣ) is His right (ḥaqq). A servant cannot fulfil His right save through His kindness in granting him assistance through the means of faith (asbāb al-īmān), which are the irrefutable proofs and wondrous signs (āyāt muʿjiza).His words:
…He has made disbelief, mischief and disobedience hateful to you…due to the fear of His abhorrent punishment.His words:
49.6-8 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
(O ye who believe! If an evil-liver bring you tidings, verify it…) [49:6-8]. These verse were revealed about al-Walid ibn ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu‘ayt. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent him to collect the poor-due from Banu’l-Mustaliq. However, there was an old enmity between him and them in the pre-Islamic period. When these people heard of his coming, they came out to receive him out of reverence for Allah, exalted is He, and His Messenger. But he was scared of them and the devil whispered to him that they wanted to kill him. He returned halfway and went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, saying: “Banu’l-Mustaliq have refused to pay the poor-due and wanted to kill me”. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, became angry and was about to attack them. Meanwhile, when Banu’l-Mustaliq realised that the emissary had gone back, they went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: “We heard of your emissary and we went out to receive him, honour him and give him that which was due upon us of the right of Allah, exalted is He. But your emissary went back and we feared that what sent him back might be a message he received from you because you are angry with us. And we seek refuge in Allah from His wrath and from the wrath of His Messenger”. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (O ye who believe! If an evil-liver) i.e. al-Walid ibn ‘Uqbah (bring you tidings, verify it…). Al-Hakim Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Shadhyakhi informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Zakariyya al-Shaybani> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Daghuli> Sa‘id ibn Mas‘ud> Muhammad ibn Sabiq> ‘Isa ibn Dinar> his father> al-Harith ibn Dirar who said: “I went to see the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and he invited me to embrace Islam. I embraced Islam and believed. He enjoined me to pay the poor-due and I agreed. I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I will go to my people and invite them to embrace Islam and pay the poor-due. I will collect the poor-due from whoever accepts my invitation and at such-and-such a time you send for me so that I bring you the poor-due I collect’ ”. When al-Harith ibn Dirar collected the poor-due from those who accepted to embrace Islam and it was the agreed time for sending it to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, the emissary failed to show. Al-Harith thought that Allah and His Messenger were angry with him. He gathered the leaders of his people and said to them: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, has set a specific time for me to send an emissary to collect the poor-due that I have with me. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, does not go back on his word. I think that the emissary has failed to show up because of anger. Let us go to see the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace”. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had sent al-Walid ibn ‘Uqbah to al-Harith to fetch the poor-due that the latter had collected. After travelling a while, al-Walid got scared and returned back. He said: “O Messenger of Allah, al-Harith refused to hand the poor-due over to me and wanted to kill me”. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent a dispatch to al-Harith and met al-Harith and his companions who were coming to see the Prophet close to Medina. Al-Harith met them there and they recognized him. He asked them: “To whom have you been sent?” They said: “To you”. “Why?” he asked. They said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent you al-Walid ibn ‘Uqbah but he came back claiming that you refused to give him the poor-due and that you wanted to kill him”. He said: “No, by Him Who has sent Muhammad with the truth; I did not see him nor did he come to me”. When al-Harith entered in on the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, he said to him: “You withheld the poor-due and wanted to kill my emissary!” Al-Harith said: “No, by Him Who has sent Muhammad with the truth; I did not see your emissary nor did he come to me. I only came when your emissary failed to show up and I feared that Allah and His Messenger might be angry with us”. Then these verses of al-Hujurat were revealed (O ye who believe! If an evil-liver bring you tidings, verify it, lest ye smite some folk in ignorance and afterward repent of what ye did) up to His words ((It is) a bounty and a grace from Allah; and Allah is Knower, Wise) [49:8].