Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(When those who disbelieve) the disbelievers of Mecca (had set up in their hearts zealotry, the zealotry of the Age of Ignorance) by preventing the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his Companions from the House, (then Allah sent down His peace of reassurance) His tranquillity (upon His messenger and upon the believers) and removed zealotry from them (and imposed on them) and inspired them with (the word of self restraint) “there is no deity save Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, (for they were worthy of it) they were worthy of “there is no deity save Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, as it was in Allah's beginninglessly eternal knowledge (and meet for it) in the life of this world. (And Allah is Aware of all things) regarding honouring the believers.
When those who disbelieve (alladhīna kafarū is the subject [of the following verb ja‘ala]) nourished (idh ja‘ala is semantically connected to ‘adhdhabnā) in their hearts zealotry (al-hamiyya, [means] ‘disdain of something’), the zealotry of pagandom (hamiyyata’l-jāhiliyyati substitutes for al-hamiyyata, ‘zealotry’), namely, their barring of the Prophet and his Companions from [visiting] the Sacred Mosque, [but] then God sent down His spirit of Peace upon His Messenger and the believers, and so they [the disbelievers] made a truce with them on the condition that they [the believers] would [be allowed to] return the following year, and [such] zealotry would not overcome them [the believers] as it did the disbelievers [then] until they would come to fight them [later], and He made them, the believers, abide by the word of God-fearing (kalimata’l-taqwā): ‘there is no god except God, [and] Muhammad is His Messenger’ (it [kalima, ‘word’] is annexed to al-taqwā because it is the cause of it), for they were worthier of it, of the word, than the disbelievers, and deserving of it (wa-ahlahā is an explanatory supplement). And God is ever Knower of all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute, and among the things He knows is that they are worthy of it.
Some of the Benefits gained from the Treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah
Allah the Exalted states that the Arab idolators from Quraysh and their allies who extended help to them against His Messenger,
هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ
(They are those who disbelieved), they are indeed the disbelievers,
وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ
(and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram) `even though you are its people and more worthy of being responsible for it,'
وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ
(and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.) they prevented, because of transgression and stubbornness, the sacrificial animals from being reached to the place where they would be slaughtered. There were seventy sacrificial camels designated for sacrifice, as we will mention, Allah willing. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(Had there not been believing men and believing women) `living among the Makkans hiding their faith for fearing for their safety from the pagans. Otherwise, We would have given you authority over the Makkans and you would have killed them to the brink of extermination. However, there were some faithful believers, men and women, living among them, about whom you had no knowledge of being believers and you might try to kill them.' Allah's statement,
(without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills) that Allah might delay the punishment of the pagans of Makkah to save the believers who lived among them, and so that many of the idolators might embrace Islam. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(if they had been apart), if the disbelievers and the believers who were living among them had been apart,
(We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved) `We would have given you dominance over the disbelievers and you would have inflicted tremendous slaughter on them.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness -- the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) when they refused to write (in the treaty document), `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,' and, `These are the terms agreed on by Muhammad, Allah's Messenger,'
(then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) the word of Taqwa refers to sincerity, according to Mujahid. `Ata' bin Abi Rabah commented, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partners. All the dominion belongs to Him and all praise is due to Him. He is Ever Able to do everything.'' Yunus bin Bukayr said that Ibn Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri, from `Urwah, from Al-Miswar, commenting on,
وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى
(and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) "`La ilaha illallah, alone without partners.''
The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed
Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in `Book of Conditions' that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, "Allah's Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for `Umrah. He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuza`ah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, `The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.' The Messenger said,
(Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!)'' In another narration, the Prophet said,
(If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them) "Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "O, Allah's Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.'' In another narration, Abu Bakr said, "Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform `Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.'' The Prophet said,
(Go forth then.) In another narration, the Prophet said,
«فَامْضُوا عَلَى اسْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى»
(Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.) "When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet said,
(Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.) By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them. The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, `Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn!' The Prophet said,
(By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.) The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah's Messenger. The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied. While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa' Al-Khuza`i came with some people from his tribe, Khuza`ah. They were the advisers of Allah's Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah. Budayl said, `I left (the tribes of) Ka`b bin Lu'ay and `Amir bin Lu'ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah.' Allah's Messenger said,
(We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform `Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.) Budayl said, `I will inform them of what you have said.' So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, `We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.' Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, `Relate what you heard him saying.' Budayl said, `I heard him saying such and such,' relating what the Prophet had told him. `Urwah bin Mas`ud stood up and said, `O people! Aren't you the sons' They said, `Yes.' He added, `Am I not the father' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Do you mistrust me' They said, `No.' He said, `Don't you know that I invited the people of `Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Well, this man has offered you a reasonable proposal, it is better for you to accept it and allow me to meet him.' They said, `You may meet him.' So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet said the same to him as he had to Budayl bin Warqa. Then `Urwah said, `O Muhammad! Won't you feel any qualms by exterminating your relations Have you ever heard of anyone among the Arabs annihilating his relatives before you On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, by Allah, I do not see dignified people here, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.' Hearing that, Abu Bakr verbally abused him and said, `Go suck Al-Lat's womb! Are you saying we would run and leave the Prophet alone' `Urwah said, `Who is that man' They said, `He is Abu Bakr.' `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, `By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would rebuke you.' `Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet's beard as he was talking, while Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever `Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say, `Remove your hand from the beard of Allah's Messenger.' `Urwah raised his head and asked, `Who is that' The people said, `He is Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah.' `Urwah said, `O treacherous (one)! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery' Before embracing Islam, Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people. He killed them, took their property and came (to Al-Madinah) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him,
(As regards to your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it.) `Urwah then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet. By Allah, whenever Allah's Messenger spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them, who would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry his orders immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. `Urwah returned to his people and said, `O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi. Yet, by Allah! I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers, as much as, Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall into the hand of one of them and he would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.' A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, `Allow me to go to him,' and they allowed him. When he approached the Prophet and his Companions, Allah's Messenger said,
(He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the sacrificial camels. So, bring the sacrificial camels before him.) So, the sacrificial camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, `Glorified is Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.' When he returned to his people, he said, `I saw the sacrificial camels garlanded and marked. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`bah.' Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs stood up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said,
«هَذَا مِكْرَزٌ وَهُوَ رَجُلٌ فَاجِر»
(Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man.) Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhayl bin `Amr came.'' Ma`mar said that Ayyub said to him that `Ikrimah said, "When Suhayl bin `Amr came, the Prophet said,
«قَدْ سَهُلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِكُم»
(Now the matter has become easy for you.)'' Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri narrated, "When Suhayl bin `Amr came, he said to the Prophet, `Please conclude a peace treaty with us.' So, the Prophet called `Ali bin Abi Talib and said to him,
«اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم»
(Write: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.) Suhayl bin `Amr said, `As for Ar-Rahman, by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name, O Allah, as you used to write previously.' The Muslims said, `By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.' The Prophet said,
«اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللْهُم»
(Write: "In Your Name O Allah.'') Then he dictated,
«هذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله»
(This is a peace treaty, which Muhammad, Allah's Messenger has concluded.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad bin `Abdullah.' The Prophet said to him,
(By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if your people do not believe me. Write: "Muhammad bin `Abdullah.'')'' Az-Zuhri continued, "The Prophet accepted all those things, since he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, the Exalted.'' The Hadith continues, "The Prophet said to Suhayl,
(On the condition that you allow us to visit the House so that we may perform Tawaf around it.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, we will not, so as not to give the Arabs a chance to say that we have yielded to your pressure, but we will allow you next year.' So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhayl said, `We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.' The Muslims protested, `Glorified be Allah! How can a person be returned to the idolators after he has become a Muslim' While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin `Amr came from the valley of Makkah staggering with his chains and fell down among the Muslims. Suhayl said, `O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, that is, you shall return Abu Jandal to me.' The Prophet said,
«إِنَّا لَمْ نَقْضِ الْكِتَابَ بَعْد»
(The peace treaty has not been written yet.) Suhayl said, `Then by Allah, I will never conduct peace with you.' The Prophet said,
(Release him to me,) and Suhayl responded, `I will never allow you to keep him.' The Prophet said,
(Yes, do.) He said, `I will not.' Mikraz said, `We allow you (to keep him).' Abu Jandal said, `O, Muslims! Will I be returned to the idolators although I have come as a Muslim Don't you see how much I have suffered' Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I went to the Prophet and said: Aren't you truly the Messenger of Allah' The Prophet said,
(Yes, indeed.) I said, `Isn't our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust' He said,
(Yes.) I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion' He said,
(Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year) I said, `No.' He said,
«فَإِنَّكَ آتِيهِ وَمُطَّوِّفٌ بِه»
(So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar further said, `I went to Abu Bakr and said: O Abu Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet' He replied, `Yes.' I said, `Is not our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust' He said, `Yes.' I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion' He said, `O you man! Indeed, he is Allah's Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him for, by Allah, he is on the right path.' I said, `Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it' He said, `Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year' I said, `No.' He said, `You will go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.' Az-Zuhri said, "`Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.' '' "When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Messenger said to his Companions,
«قُومُوا فَانْحَرُوا ثُمَّ احْلِقُوا»
(Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and have your heads shaved.) By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salamah and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, `O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out Go out and don't say a word to anybody until you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.' The Messenger of Allah went out and did not talk to anyone until he did what she suggested, slaughtered the sacrifice and shaved his head. Seeing that, the Companions got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another. There was so much of a rush -- and sadness -- that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came and Allah the Exalted and most Honored revealed the following Ayat,
(O you who believe! When believing women come to you) (60:10), until,
(Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives.) `Umar then divorced two of his wives, who were disbelievers. Later on Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umayyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Al-Madinah, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from the Quraysh, came to him. The disbelievers sent two men in pursuit who said to the Prophet, `Abide by the promise you gave us.' So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of Al-Madinah) until they reached Dhul-Hulayfah where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, `By Allah, O, so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword.' The other drew it out (of its sheath) and said, `Yes, by Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times.' Abu Basir said, `Let me have a look at it.' When the other gave the sword to Abu Basir, he struck him with it until he died. His companion ran away until he reached Al-Madinah, entering the Masjid running. When Allah's Messenger saw him he said,
«لَقَدْ رَأَى هذَا ذُعْرًا»
(This man appears to have been frightened.) When he reached the Prophet he said, `My companion has been murdered, by Allah, and I would have been murdered too. ' Abu Basir came and said, `O Allah's Messenger, by Allah! Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by returning me to them, but Allah the Exalted has saved me from them.' The Prophet said,
(Woe to his mother! What an excellent war kindler he would be, if he only have supporters.) When Abu Basir heard this from the Prophet, he understood that he would return him to the idolators again, so he set off until he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl also got himself released from the disbelievers and joined Abu Basir. Thereafter, whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir until they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of the Quraysh heading towards Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), they stopped it, attacked and killed the disbelievers and took their properties. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever among them came to the Prophet, would be secure. So, the Prophet sent for them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed the following Ayat,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah), until,
(the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) Their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, refused to write, `In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim,' and prevented Muslims from visiting the Ka`bah.'' This is the narration Al-Bukhari collected in the Book of Tafsir, `Umrat Al-Hudaybiyyah, Hajj, and so forth. Allah is the Only One sought for help, all reliance is on Him alone and there is no might or strength except from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise. Al-Bukhari narrated in the Book of Tafsir that Habib bin Abi Thabit said that he went to Abu Wa'il asking him about something and he said, "We were at Siffin, when a man said, `Do you not see those who call to Allah's Book' `Ali bin Abi Talib said, `Yes.' Sahl bin Hunayf said, `Do not feel certain in the reliability of your own opinions! On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the day the treaty of peace was signed between the Prophet and idolators, had we found a chance to fight, we would have done so.' `Umar came (to the Prophet ) and said, `Are we not on the true cause and theirs is the false cause Are not our killed in Paradise and theirs in the Fire' He said, `Yes.' `Umar said, `Why then should we be humble with regards to the cause of our religion Why should we go back before Allah decides in the matter between us (between Muslims and the idolators.)' The Prophet said,
(O son of Al-Khattab! I am Allah's Messenger and He will never abandon me. ) `Umar left while feeling angry and soon went to Abu Bakr and said, `O Abu Bakr! Are we not on the true cause and they are on falsehood' Abu Bakr said, `O son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah's Messenger and Allah will never abandon him.' Surat Al-Fath was later revealed.''' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several other parts of his Sahih, and so did Muslim and An-Nasa'i using various chains of narration from Abu Wa'il, Sufyan bin Salamah, from Sahl bin Hunayf. Some of these narrations read, "O people! Accuse sheer opinion (of being imperfect)! On the day Abu Jandal came, I saw myself willing to reject the command of Allah's Messenger, had I had the chance.'' In yet another narration, "Surat Al-Fath was revealed and the Messenger of Allah called `Umar bin Al-Khattab and recited it to him.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "Quraysh resorted to peace with the Prophet. Suhayl bin `Amr was among the idolators then. The Prophet said to `Ali,
«اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم»
(Write: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.'') Suhayl said, `We do not know the meaning of: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim. However, write what we do know: In Your Name, O Allah!' The Messenger said,
«اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ الله»
(Write: "From Muhammad, Allah's Messenger,'') and Suhayl said, `If we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would have followed you. However, write your name and the name of your father.' The Prophet said,
«اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِالله»
(Write: "From Muhammad son of `Abdullah.'') They set the terms with the Prophet that, `If anyone comes from your side to us, we will not send him back to you. If anyone from among us came to you, you send him back to us.' `Ali said, `O Allah's Messenger! Should I write this,' and the Prophet said,
(Yes. Surely, those who revert from our side and go to them, then may Allah cast them away.) Muslim also collected this Hadith.'' Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "When Al-Haruriyyah rebelled, they set a separate camp for their group. I said to them, `On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah agreed to conduct peace with the idolators. He said to `Ali,
(Write, O `Ali: "These are the terms agreed to by Muhammad, Allah's Messenger.'')' The idolators said, `If we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would not have fought you.' Allah's Messenger said,
(O `Ali! Erase it. O Allah! You know that I am Your Messenger. O `Ali! Erase it and write instead: "These are the peace terms agreed to by Muhammad bin `Abdullah.'') By Allah, Allah's Messenger is better than `Ali, and the Messenger erased his title. However, erasing his title did not mean that he was erased from being a Prophet. Have I given you sufficient proof in this.' They said, `Yes.''' Abu Dawud also collected a similar narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah slaughtered seventy sacrificial camels, including a camel that belonged to Abu Jahl. When the camel was prevented from coming to the House, she cried just as she would cry when seeing her offspring.''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That is, "Allah was seeing the sincerity and the selfless devotion with which you had become ready to lay down your lives in the cause of the true Faith and were obeying the Prophet without any question. Allah was also seeing that the disbelievers were being unfair and high-handed. The demand of this situation was that they should have been punished there and then through you, but in spite of that. Allah restrained your hands from them and their hands from you."
This was the reason why Allah did not allow fighting to take place at Hudaibiyah. This has two aspects:
That at that time there were quite a number of the Muslim men and women living in Makkah, who were either hiding their faith, or were being persecuted because of their faith as they had no means to emigrate. Had there been fighting and the Muslims had pushed back the disbelievers and entered Makkah, these Muslims also would have been killed in ignorance along with the disbelievers. This would not only have grieved the Muslims but the Arab polytheists also would have got an opportunity to say that the Muslims did not even spare their own brethren in faith during wartime. Therefore, Allah took pity on the helpless Muslims and averted the war in order to save the Companions from grief and infamy. The other aspect of the expedience was that Allah did not will that Makkah should fall to the Muslims as a result of the defeat of the Quraish after a bloody clash but He willed that they should be encircled from all sides so that within two years or so they should become absolutely helpless and subdued without offering any resistance, and then the whole tribe should accept Islam and enter Allah's mercy as it actually happened on the Conquest of Makkah.
Here the juristic dispute has arisen that if during a war between the Muslims and the disbelievers, the disbelievers should bring out some Muslim men and women, children and old men, in their possession and put them in the forefront as a shield for themselves, or if there is some Muslim population also in the non-Muslim city under attack by the Muslim forces, or if in a warship of the disbelievers, which is within our gun-fire, the disbelievers have taken some Muslims also on board, can the Muslim army open fire on it? In answer to it the nulings given by different jurists are as follows:
Imam Malik says that in such a case fire should not be opened, and for this he cites this very verse as an argument. He contends that Allah prevented the war at Hudaibiyah only in order to save the Muslims. (Ibn al-`Arabi, Ahkam al Qur'an). But this in fact is a weak argument. There is no word in the verse which may support the view that launching an attack on the enemy in this case is unlawful and forbidden. At the most what one can say on the basis of this verse is that the launching of an attack in such a case should be avoided in order to save the Muslims, provided that it does not put the disbelievers in an advantageous position against the Muslims militarily, or does not diminish the Muslims' chances of gaining an upper hand in the conflict.
Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Zufar and Imam Muhammad saythat it is lawful to open fire in such a case; so much so that even if the disbelievers use the children of the Muslims as a shield by putting them in the forefront, there is no harm in shooting at them, and it is not obligatory for the Muslims to expiate and pay any blood-money for the Muslims thus killed, (AIJassas, Ahkam al-Qur'an; Imam Muhammad, :Kitab as-Siyar).
Imam Sufyan Thauri also in this case regards opening of the fire as lawful, but he says that although the Muslims will not pay the blood-money of the Muslims thus killed, it is obligatory for them to expiate the sin. (AI-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur an).
Imam Auza`i and Laith bin Sa`d say that if the disbelievers use the Muslims as a shield, fire should not be opened on them. Likewise, if it is known that in their warship ow own prisoners also are on board, it should not be sunk. But if we attack a city of theirs and we know that there are Muslims also in the city, it is lawful to open fire on the city, for it is not certain that our shells will only hit the Muslims, and if a Muslim becomes a victim of this shelling, it will not be willful murder of a Muslim but an inadvertent accident. (Al-Jassas, Ahkam alQur an).
Imam Shafe`i holds the view that in such a case if it is not inevitable to open fire it is better to try to save the Muslims from destruction; although it is not unlawful to open fire in this case, it is undesirable. But if it is really necessary and it is feared that in case fire is not opened it will put the disbelievers in a better position militarily against the Muslims, it is lawful to resort to shelling, but even then every effort should be made to save the Muslims as far as possible. Furthermore, Imam Shafe'i also says that if during a conflict the disbelievers put a Muslim in front as a shield and a Muslim kills him, there can be two possible alternatives: either the killer knew that the murdered person was a Muslim, or he did not know that he was a Muslim. In the first case, he will be under obligation to pay compensation for manslaughter as well as do expiation; in the second case he will only do expiation. (Mughni al-Muhtaj).
The words hamiyyat al -jahiliyyah mean that a man should willfully do something unworthy and improper only for the sake of his honor and prestige. The disbelievers of Makkah themselves acknowledged and admitted that everybody,had a right to visit the Ka`bah for performing Hajj and `Umrah, and that they had no right to slop anyone from this duty. This was an ancient admitted law of Arabia. But in spite of knowing that they were absolutely in the wrong and the Muslims in the right, they prevented the Muslims from performing `Umrah only for the sake of their prestige. The righteous even among the polytheists also were saving that preventing the people who had come in the pilgrim garbs along with sacrificial camels from performing pilgrimage was an improper act. Yet the Quraish leaders persisted in their resistance only under the idea that if Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) entered Makkah along with a large number of his followers, it would mean loss of prestige for them among the Arabs. This was their arrogance.
Here, sakinat means the patience and dignity with which the Holy Prophet and the Muslims resisted the disbelievers rancor and spirit of paganism. They did not get provoked at their stubborn and insolent behavior and did not do anything which might have violated the spirit of Truth and righteousness, or which might have further complicated the situation instead of settling it amicably.
…and made binding on them the promise to be mindful [of Him], for they were more worthy and deserving of it… He said:[The promise to be mindful of God (kalimat al-taqwā)] is saying: ‘There is no god except God (lā ilāha illā’Llāh), for truly it is the summit of mindfulness of God.Then he said:The best among people are the Muslims, the best among Muslims are the believers, the best among believers are the scholars who act upon their knowledge, the best among those who act [upon their knowledge] are the fearful (khāʾifūn), and the best among the fearful are the sincere ones who are fully aware of God (al-mukhliṣūn al-muttaqūn), whose sincerity and awareness of God remains with them up until their death. Indeed, the likeness of these [latter] is that of a passenger on board a ship at sea. He does not know whether he will be saved from [the sea] or drown in it. Those for whom this was true were the Companions of the Messenger of God according to His words: and made binding on them the promise to be mindful of Him.His words: