The Quran

Commentaries for 45.20

Al Jathiya (Kneeling) - الجاثية

45.20 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(This) Qur'an (is clear indication for mankind, and a guidance) from error (and a mercy) preventing from chastisement (for a folk whose faith is sure) for people who believe in Muhammad (pbuh) and the Qur'an.
45.20 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
This, Qur’ān, is [a set of] insights for mankind, guideposts with which they can discern [God’s] rulings and legal proscriptions, and guidance and mercy for a people who have certainty, with regard to the [truth of the] Resurrection.
45.16-20 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Preference of Allah to the Children of Israel and their dispute thereafter
Allah the Exalted mentions the favors He granted the Children of Israel, such as revealing the Divine Books to them, sending the Messengers to them and granting them kingship. Allah said,
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ
(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things,) such as foods and drinks,
وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمينَ
(and preferred them above the nations.) of their time,
وَءاتَيْنَـهُم بَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ
(And gave them clear proofs in matters.) `We gave them evidences, proofs and unequivocal signs.' Therefore, the proof has been established against them, yet they differed among themselves after the proof came to them, out of transgression against each other,
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ
(Verily, your Lord) `O Muhammad',
يَقْضِى بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
(will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ. ) He will judge between them by His just judgement.
Warning to this Ummah against following the Ways of the Children of Israel
This Ayah contains a warning to the Muslim Ummah as well. It warns them not to take the path the Jews took nor adopt their ways. This is why Allah said,
ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـكَ عَلَى شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا
(Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that.) `follow what was revealed to you from your Lord, O Muhammad, there is no true deity except Him, and turn away from the idolators.' Allah said,
وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَإِنَّهُمْ لَن يُغْنُواْ عَنكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَإِنَّ الظَّـلِمِينَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ
(and follow not the desires of those who know not. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another,) Allah says, `what will the loyalty that the idolators give each other avail them' Indeed, all they will earn from their protecting friends is more loss, destruction and demise,
وَاللَّهُ وَلِىُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
(but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) and He will deliver them from the darkness to the light. In contrast, all the false deities are the protecting friends of those who disbelieve, taking them out of the light to the darkness. Allah said,
هَـذَا بَصَـئِرُ لِلنَّاسِ
(This is a clear insight and evidence for man- kind,) in reference to the Qur'an,
وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
(and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)
45.16-20 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Hukm (judgment) implies three things:
(1) Knowledge and understanding of the Book and Religion;
(2) wisdom to act according to the intention of the Book; and
(3) capability to give right decisions in disputes.
It does not mean that they were given preference over all the people of the world for ever, rather it means: Allah had chosen the children of Israel from among all the contemporary nations of the world for the service that they should hold fast to the Divine Book and should rise as the standard-bearers of God-worship in the world.
For explanation, see AI-Baqarah: 213, AI-'Imran: 19 and E.N.'s 22, 23 of Ash-Shura.
It means: "The mission that had been entrusted to the children of Israel before you has now been entrusted to you. They, in spite of receiving knowledge, created such differences in religion out of selfish motives and stirred up such divisions among themselves that they became disqualified to call the people to God's way. Now you have been set upon the clear highway of Religion so that you may perform the service which the children of Israel have failed to perform and become disqualified to perform it. " (For further explanation, see Ash-Shura: 13-15 and E.N.'s 20 to 26).
That is, "If you make any changes in Allah's Religion only to please them, they will not be able to save you from Allah's accountability and punishment. "
That is, "This Book and this Shari`ah present such a light for all the people of the world, which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, but only such people receive any guidance from it who believe in its truth; for them only it is a mercy."