Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(But nay, by your lord) Allah swore by Himself and by the age of Muhammad, (they will not believe) in secret nor deserve to be called believers when alone (until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves) in their hearts (no dislike) no doubt (of that which thou decidest) between them, (and submit with full submission) totally submit to you.
Then they will not find in themselves any tightness from what thou decreest and will surrender with full submission.
“Do you not know that all the work has been bound to my tracks, and both houses have been attached to my street?” What rank and good fortune! What nobility and excellence! From the era of Adam until today, who has had such complete bounty and such well-arranged work, such celestial exaltedness and such god-like luster?
After 500 and some years, the pillar of his Shariah's good fortune is flourishing, his branches blooming, his wood yielding fruit, his eminence elevated, his decree predominant. His splendor is in this world, his fame in the next. Each heart has a lamp from him, each tongue a burning brand from him, each heart a splendor from him, each head a call from him, each spirit a place for him.
If you fancy that there is none of God's gentleness-there is. That above the world's beauties there is no king-there is.
If you suppose that the spirits of good men in their passion
have no familiarity with the beauty of the dust of your feet-they do.
And if you think that when you lift up your tresses from your cheek
the lamp of the spheres has no brightness from you-it does. [DS 821-22]
But no, (fa-lā, the lā is extra) by your Lord! They will not believe until they make you judge over what has broken out, has become mixed up, between them and find in themselves no inhibition, [no] constraint or doubt, regarding what you decide, but submit, [but] comply with your ruling, in full submission, without objection.
But no, by your Lord! They will not believe, with the true faith of the affirmation of the Oneness, until they make you judge, by virtue of your judgement being God's judgement, but the essence has been veiled by the attributes and the attributes by the acts.Thus when they fall into dispute they have stood by their attributes veiled from the attributes of the Truth, or by their acts veiled from the acts of the Truth and are not in reality believers. When they make you judge, however, they will have been stripped of their acts and if they do not find in their souls any inhibition regarding what you decide, they will have been stripped of their will and attained the station of satisfaction, and [stripped] of their knowledge and power and attained the station of submission whereafter their attributes will no longer constitute a veil and they will have acquired the attributes of the Truth who is unveiled to them in the form of the attributes and they will know that you are Him, subsisting in Him and not in your own self, in reality being just through His justness and so their belief in God will have been realised.
(We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed) meaning, obeying the Prophet was ordained for those to whom Allah sends the Prophet. Allah's statement,
(by Allah's leave) means, "None shall obey, except by My leave,'' according to Mujahid. This Ayah indicates that the Prophets are only obeyed by whomever Allah directs to obedience. In another Ayah, Allah said,
(And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission) meaning, by His command, decree, will and because He granted you superiority over them. Allah's statement,
وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ
(If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves,) directs the sinners and evildoers, when they commit errors and mistakes, to come to the Messenger, so that they ask Allah for forgiveness in his presence and ask him to supplicate to Allah to forgive them. If they do this, Allah will forgive them and award them His mercy and pardon. This is why Allah said,
لَوَجَدُواْ اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَّحِيماً
(they would have found Allah All-Forgiving (One Who forgives and accepts repentance), Most Merciful).
One Does not Become a Believer Unless He Refers to the Messenger for Judgment and Submits to his Decisions
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,) Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment in all matters. Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly. Allah said,
(and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.) meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly. They submit to the Prophet's decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah said, "Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah's Messenger said to Az-Zubayr,
(O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.) The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin' On that, the face of Allah's Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said,
(Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.) So, Allah's Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry. Before that, Allah's Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari. Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case,
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ) judge in all disputes between them.)''' Another Reason In his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that two men took their dispute to the Prophet, and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, "I do not agree.'' The other person asked him, "What do you want then'' He said, "Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.'' They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, "We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor.'' Abu Bakr said, "Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued.'' The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, "Let us go to `Umar bin Al-Khattab.'' When they went to `Umar, the person who won the dispute said, "We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision.'' `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred. `Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet's decision with the sword and killed him. Consequently, Allah revealed,
فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith).
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
In this verse, Taghut clearly stands for the authority that makes decisions in accordance with laws other than Divine and the system of judiciary which acknowledges neither Allah as the Supreme Sovereign nor His Book as the final authority. Hence, this verse is explained that it is contrary to Faith to take one's case for decision to a law court which by its nature is, that of taghut Belief in Allah and His Book makes it obligatory on the Believer that he should refuse to acknowledge such a court as lawful. According to the Qur'an, belief in Allah and disbelief in taghut are correlatives; therefore to acknowledge both at one and the same time is nothing but hypocrisy itself.
This shows that the hypocrites used to bring only such cases before the Holy Prophet as were likely to be decided in their favor, but would refrain from bringing such cases, which they feared, would be decided against them. The same is true of many hypocrites of today: they are ever ready to submit to the decisions of the Islamic Law if and whenever it goes in their favor; otherwise they resort to any law, any custom, and any law court which, they expect, will ensure their interests.
Probably it means that when their hypocritical deeds are exposed and they fear that action will be taken against them; they take oaths to assure the Believers of their innocence.
It clearly defines the position of the Messenger: the Messenger does not come from Allah so that the people should simply acknowledge him as a Messenger and then continue to obey anyone they like. The Messenger is sent with the sole object that the code of life brought by him only should be followed instead of all other codes, and the commandments brought by him from Allah only should be obeyed instead of all other commandments. If anyone does not acknowledge the Messenger in this sense, his acknowledging him merely as a Messenger would be meaningless.
The commandment contained in verse 65 was not meant to be confined to the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, but it was to hold good up to the Last Day. Whatever the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) brought from Allah and whatever way of life he followed and practiced under His guidance and inspiration, shall remain the final authority among Muslims for ever and the acknowledgment of that authority alone determines whether one is a true Muslim or not. According to a Tradition, the Holy Prophet said: "None of you can claim to be a believer unless he subordinates his desires and lusts to the way that I have brought."
But no by your Lord! They will not believe until they make you judge over what has broken out between them and find in themselves no inhibition regarding what you decide but submit in full submission. He has blocked the path to Himself for everyone unless there is faith in Muḥammad ﷺ. Those who do not walk under his banner have nothing to speak of before God. Moreover He has made one of the conditions of faith the complete removal of oppositional tendencies in your heart. And find in themselves no inhibition... There is no escape for you but to face even perilous situations laughing just as someone said: If a beloved is unfair to me I am fair to him. I gulp down for him the most bitter and give him what is sweet to drink. If he says to me “It is over” I choose equanimity without making difficulties.
(But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them…) [4:65]. This was revealed about al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam and his adversary Hatib ibn Abi Balta'ah, and it was also said that his adversary was Tha'labah ibn Hatib. Abu Sa'id 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Malik> 'Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> his father> Abu'l-Yaman> Shu'ayb> al-Zuhri> 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr> his father that he used to relate that he once went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, to settle a dispute he had with one of the Helpers who had participated in the Battle of Badr regarding a water conduit which they both used to water their land. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said to al-Zubayr: “Water your land first and then let the water flow to your neighbour”. The Helper got angry and said: “O Messenger of Allah! You judged in this way because he is the son of your maternal aunt”. Upon hearing this, the face of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, flushed. He then said to al-Zubayr: “Water your land and then block the water until it goes back to its source”. In this way the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, gave al-Zubayr his full right. His first command to al-Zubayr was made because he wanted to make it easy on both al-Zubayr and the Helper. But when the Helper protested against the judgement of the Messenger of Allah, he gave al-Zubayr his full right as he deserved this judgement in the first place. Said 'Urwah: “By Allah, I do not think that this verse (But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which thou decidest, and submit with full submission) was revealed about other than this incident”. This was narrated by Bukhari> 'Ali ibn 'Abd Allah> Muhammad ibn Ja'far> Ma'mar, and also by Muslim> Qutaybah> al-Layth and both al-Layth and Ma'mar related it from al-Zuhri. Abu 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hamid informed us> Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Hafiz> Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani> Ahmad ibn Hammad ibn Zughbah> Hamid ibn Yahya ibn Hani' al-Balkhi> Sufyan> 'Amr ibn Dinar> Abu Salamah> Umm Salamah who related that al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam had a dispute with a man and the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, judged in his favour. The man said that he judged in his favour because he was his cousin. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe…).