Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Then Allah said about the believers: (And as for those who believe) in Muhammad, the Qur'an and in all Scriptures and messengers (and do good works) acts of obedience, i.e. they sincerely perform that which is between them and their Lord, (We shall make them enter) in the Hereafter (Gardens beneath which) beneath its trees and walls (rivers) rivers of wine, milk, honey and water (flow to dwell therein for ever) dwelling in Paradise, never to die or be removed; (there for them) in Paradise (are pure companions) they are pure from menstruation and filth (and We shall make them enter plenteous shade) a protected retreat; and it is also said that this means: an extended shade.
And those that believe, and perform righteous deeds, We shall admit them to Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide: they shall have therein spouses purified, of menstruation and every impurity, and We shall admit them to plenteous shade, that is everlasting [shade], never replaced by any sun, and this is the shade of Paradise.
And those that believe, by affirming the unity of [God's] attributes, and perform, what makes them righteous by virtue of [their] acceptance of the self-disclosures of these [attributes], We shall admit them to the Gardens, of those who have assumed these attributes and the stations thereof, underneath which rivers flow, that is, the rivers of the knowledge deriving from the self-disclosures of these [attributes] in the way of the knowledge of the heart. Here the [purified] spouses are the sanctified spirits which are the loci of the manifestations of the divine attributes that are purified through the corporeal configurations; and We shall admit them to plenteous shade, that is, [to] the shade of the divine attributes whose spirit lasts forever by the effacement of the human attributes.
The Punishment of Those Who Disbelieve in Allah's Books and Messengers
Allah describes the torment in the Fire of Jahannam for those who disbelieve in His Ayat and hinder from the path of His Messengers. Allah said,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا
(Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat,) meaning, We will place them in the Fire which will encompass every part of their bodies. Allah then states that their punishment and torment are everlasting,
(We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment). Al-A`mash said that Ibn `Umar said, "When their skin are burned, they will be given another skin in replacement, and this skin will be as white as paper.'' This was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Al-Hasan said,
كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ
(As often as their skins are roasted through,) "Their skin will be roasted through, seventy thousand times every day.'' Husayn said; Fudayl added that Hisham said that Al-Hasan also said that,
كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ
(As often as their skins are roasted through, ) means, "Whenever the Fire has roasted them through and consumed their flesh, they will be told, `Go back as you were before,' and they will.''
(But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever.) describing the destination of the happy ones in the gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow in all of its areas, spaces and corners, wherever they desire and wish. They will reside in it for eternity, and they will not be transferred or removed from it, nor would they want to move from it. Allah said,
لَّهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ
(Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates),) free of menstruation, postnatal bleeding, filth, bad manners and shortcomings. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, "They are purified of filth and foul things.'' Similar was said by `Ata', Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, An-Nakha`i, Abu Salih, `Atiyah, and As-Suddi. Mujahid said that they are, free of urine, menstruation, spit, mucous and pregnancies.'' Allah's statement,
وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِـلاًّ ظَلِيلاً
(And We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening (Paradise).) means, wide, extensive, pure and elegant shade. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,
(There is a tree in Paradise, that if a rider travels under its shade for a hundred years, he will not cross it. It is the Tree of Everlasting Life.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Literally, jibt means an unreal, baseless and useless thing. In the Islamic terminology, sorcery, magic, divination, omen-taking and the like superstitious practices are called jibt. A Tradition of the Holy Prophet says, "Taking omens from the sounds of the birds and the footmarks of the animals and all other methods of divination are jibt." Thus jibt is the equivalent of superstition.
Please refer to E.N.'s 286 and 288, Al-Baqarah.
The Jewish Rabbis had gone so low in their opposition to Islam that' they regarded the followers of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) as more misguided than even the Arab Mushriks, and declared the latter to be more rightly guided though it was quite obvious to them that on one side there was the worship of One God without any tinge of shirk, and on the other, idolatry white had been. thoroughly condemned in the Bible.
That is, "Do they possess any portion of Divine Authority that they are sitting in judgment on the case to decide who is rightly guided and who is not?" "Had they any part in it, they would never have given a farthing to anyone else because they are so narrow minded that they are not even ready to acknowledge the Truth"
It may also imply: Do they possess the kingdom of a country from which others are demanding a share, and they are finding it hard to part with it? What is being demanded of them is merely the acknowledgment of the Truth, and this they are refusing on account of jealousy.
Here they are being rebuked for showing jealousy against the Holy Prophet and his followers because they were blessed with Allah's Bounty (Prophethood) for which they themselves were looking forward in spite of being unworthy of it. Instead of showing regret for their own unworthiness which caused the loss of the Bounty, they were showing resentment against the Holy Prophet who had by His Bounty brought about the greatest spiritual, moral and intellectual revolution in Arabia with its resulting leadership and greatness. It was their jealousy that was urging them to side with the mushrik, and to Criticize the Muslims.
"Mulk-i-azim " refers to the leadership and guidance of the world and to the superiority over other nations that is gained by putting into practice the knowledge and wisdom of the Divine Book.
It must be kept in mind that this is the answer to the jealous talk of the children of Israel. It implies this: "Why do you feel jealous of the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be peace) and his followers? You are the descendants of the Prophet Abraham (upon whom be peace) and so are the children of Ishmael his descendants. We promised the Prophet Abraham that We would bestow leadership of the world upon those of his descendants who would follow the Book and the Wisdom sent dawn by Us. At first We sent down the Book and the Wisdom to you, who belong to one line of his descendants, but you proved incapable of this. Now We have sent down the same to the children of Ishmael the second line of.Abraham's descendants. They have accepted it, believed in it and followed it practically. Now answer for yourselves whether you have any ground of jealousy and resentment against the children of Ishmael.
And those that believe and perform righteous deeds We shall admit them to gardens underneath which rivers flow wherein they abide: they shall have therein spouses purified and We shall admit them to plenteous shade. Today they are in the shade of [God's] care riʿāya and tomorrow in the shade of [His] protection ḥimāya and sufficiency kifāya. Indeed they are in the shade of solicitude ʿināya in this world and the next. People in this group are of different types: There are those who are in the shade of His mercy those who are in the shade of His care those who are in the shade of His special generosity those who are in the shade of His solicitude and those who are in the shade of His nearness.