The Quran

Commentaries for 4.52

An Nisa (The women) - النساء

4.52 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Those are they whom Allah hath cursed) Allah has punished them by imposing on them the capitation tax, (and he whom Allah hath cursed) he whom Allah punishes in this world or in the Hereafter, (thou) O Muhammad (wilt find for him no helper) to save him from Allah's punishment.
4.52 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Those are the ones whom God has cursed; and he whom God has cursed, you will never find for him any helper, anyone to protect him from His chastisement.
4.52 Kashani - Kashani
Those are the ones whom God has cursed, by transfiguring [their] preparedness: the one whom God banishes, none can help him through guidance or bringing [him] near or deliverance.
4.49-52 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Chastising and Cursing the Jews for Claiming Purity for Themselves and Believing in Jibt and Taghut
Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "This Ayah,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ
(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves) was revealed about the Jews and Christians when they said, `We are Allah's children and His loved ones.''' Ibn Zayd also said, "This Ayah was revealed concerning their statement,
نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ
(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) and their statement,
لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى
(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian).'' This is why Allah said,
بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ
(Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills,) meaning, the decision in this matter is with Allah Alone, because He has perfect knowledge of the true reality and secrets of all things. Allah then said,
وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً
(And they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil, ) meaning, He does no injustice with anyone's compensation in any part of his reward, even if it was the weight of a Fatil. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata', Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others among the Salaf said that Fatil means, "The scalish thread in the long slit of the date-stone.'' Allah said,
انظُرْ كَيفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الكَذِبَ
(Look, how they invent a lie against Allah,) claiming purity for themselves, their claim that they are Allah's children and His loved ones, their statement;
لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى
(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian) their statement;
لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَ أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَتٍ
(The Fire shall not touch us but for a number of days) and their reliance on the righteous deeds of their forefathers. Allah has decreed that the good actions of the fathers do not help the children, when He said,
تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُم
(That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn). Allah then said,
وَكَفَى بِهِ إِثْماً مُّبِيناً
(and enough is that as a manifest sin. ) meaning, these lies and fabrications of theirs are sufficent. Allah's statement,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيباً مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّـغُوتِ
(Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut). Muhammad bin Ishaq said from Hassan bin Fa'id that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Jibt is sorcery and Taghut is the Shaytan.'' Abu Nasr Isma`il bin Hammad Al-Jawhari, the renowned scholar, said in his book As-Sihah, "Al-Jibt means idol, soothsayer and sorcerer.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah was asked about Taghut, and he said, "They are soothsayers upon whom the devils descend.'' Mujahid said "Taghut is a devil in the shape of man, and they refer to him for judgment.'' Imam Malik said, "Taghut is every object that is worshipped instead of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.''
Disbelievers Are not Better Guided Than Believers
Allah said,
وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَـؤُلاءِ أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ سَبِيلاً
(and say to those who disbelieve, "These people are better guided on the way," than the believers.) preferring the disbelievers over Muslims, because of their ignorance, un-religious nature and disbelief in Allah's Book which is before them. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "Huyay bin Akhtab and Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (two Jewish leaders) came to the people of Makkah, who said to them, `You (Jews) are people of the Book and knowledge, so judge us and Muhammad.' They said, `Describe yourselves and describe Muhammad.' They said, `We keep relation with kith and kin, slaughter camels (for the poor), release the indebted and provide water for the pilgrims. As for Muhammad he is without male children, he severed our relations, and the thieves who rob pilgrims (the tribe of) Ghifar follow him. So who is better, we or him' They said, `You are more righteous and better guided.' Thereafter, Allah sent down,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبًا
(Have you not seen those who were given a portion).'' This story was also reported from Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf. Allah's Curse on the Jews This Ayah 4:52 contains a curse for the Jews and informs them that they have no supporter in this life or the Hereafter, because they sought the help of the idolators. They uttered this statement in Ayah 4:51 to lure the disbelievers into supporting them, and they ultimately gathered their forces for the battle of Al-Ahzab, forcing the Prophet and his Companions to dig a defensive tunnel around Al-Madinah. But, Allah saved the Muslims from their evil,
وَرَدَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِغَيْظِهِمْ لَمْ يَنَالُواْ خَيْراً وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً
(And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty).
4.51-57 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Literally, jibt means an unreal, baseless and useless thing. In the Islamic terminology, sorcery, magic, divination, omen-taking and the like superstitious practices are called jibt. A Tradition of the Holy Prophet says, "Taking omens from the sounds of the birds and the footmarks of the animals and all other methods of divination are jibt." Thus jibt is the equivalent of superstition.
Please refer to E.N.'s 286 and 288, Al-Baqarah.
The Jewish Rabbis had gone so low in their opposition to Islam that' they regarded the followers of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) as more misguided than even the Arab Mushriks, and declared the latter to be more rightly guided though it was quite obvious to them that on one side there was the worship of One God without any tinge of shirk, and on the other, idolatry white had been. thoroughly condemned in the Bible.
That is, "Do they possess any portion of Divine Authority that they are sitting in judgment on the case to decide who is rightly guided and who is not?" "Had they any part in it, they would never have given a farthing to anyone else because they are so narrow minded that they are not even ready to acknowledge the Truth"
It may also imply: Do they possess the kingdom of a country from which others are demanding a share, and they are finding it hard to part with it? What is being demanded of them is merely the acknowledgment of the Truth, and this they are refusing on account of jealousy.
Here they are being rebuked for showing jealousy against the Holy Prophet and his followers because they were blessed with Allah's Bounty (Prophethood) for which they themselves were looking forward in spite of being unworthy of it. Instead of showing regret for their own unworthiness which caused the loss of the Bounty, they were showing resentment against the Holy Prophet who had by His Bounty brought about the greatest spiritual, moral and intellectual revolution in Arabia with its resulting leadership and greatness. It was their jealousy that was urging them to side with the mushrik, and to Criticize the Muslims.
"Mulk-i-azim " refers to the leadership and guidance of the world and to the superiority over other nations that is gained by putting into practice the knowledge and wisdom of the Divine Book.
It must be kept in mind that this is the answer to the jealous talk of the children of Israel. It implies this: "Why do you feel jealous of the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be peace) and his followers? You are the descendants of the Prophet Abraham (upon whom be peace) and so are the children of Ishmael his descendants. We promised the Prophet Abraham that We would bestow leadership of the world upon those of his descendants who would follow the Book and the Wisdom sent dawn by Us. At first We sent down the Book and the Wisdom to you, who belong to one line of his descendants, but you proved incapable of this. Now We have sent down the same to the children of Ishmael the second line of.Abraham's descendants. They have accepted it, believed in it and followed it practically. Now answer for yourselves whether you have any ground of jealousy and resentment against the children of Ishmael.
4.51-52 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
Have you not seen those who were given a share of the Book how they believe in al-Jibt and al-Ṭāghūt and say to the disbelievers “These are more rightly guided than the believers”ḍ Those are the ones whom God has cursed; and he whom God has cursed you will never find for him any helper. The Ṭāghūt of each person is his lower self and his whim-the idol he seeks among that which is other than [God]. When someone pays heed to a person or looks to a reason or turns to a cause or obeys a whim that thing is his jibt and his Ṭāghūt.61 The companions of al-Jibt and al-Ṭāghūt deserve the curse which is being expelled from the carpet of service ʿubūdiyya and veiled from witnessing lordship rubūbiyya.
4.52 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
(and he whom Allah hath cursed, thou (O Muhammad) wilt find for him no helper…) [4:52]. Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Muqri' informed us> Sufyan ibn Muhammad> Makki ibn 'Abdan> Abu'l-Azhar> Rawh> Sa'id>> Qatadah who said: “This verse was revealed about Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf and Huyayy ibn Akhtab, two Jews from Banu'l-Nadir, who met the people of Quraysh in the season of pilgrimage and were asked by the idolaters: 'Who is more guided to the way of the truth us or Muhammad? For we are the custodians of the Sacred Precinct, we provide water for the pilgrims and we are the inhabitants of the Sacred Precinct'. They said: 'No indeed, you are more guided than Muhammad'. They said this while knowing very well they were lying. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Those are they whom Allah hath cursed, and he whom Allah hath cursed, thou (O Muhammad) wilt find for him no helper). When they went back to their people, the latter told them: 'Muhammad claims that such-and-such was revealed about you'. They said: 'He has said the truth. By Allah, the hatred and resentful envy that we have for him drove us to do so' ”.