Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And serve Allah) acknowledge His divine Oneness. (Ascribe no thing) no idol (as partner unto Him. (Show) kindness unto parents) be dutiful to parents, (and unto near kindred) Allah commands you to keep ties with your kin, (and orphans) He commands that you show kindness to orphans, and to protect their wealth, etc, (and the needy) and He enjoins giving alms to the needy, (and unto the neighbour who is of kin (unto you)) the neighbour who also happen to be your relative has three rights over you: the right of kinship, the right of Islam, and the right of being a neighbour (and the neighbour who is not of kin) the neighbour who is not a relative has two rights: the right of Islam and the right of being a neighbour (and the fellow traveller) a fellow traveller has two rights: the right of Islam and the right of companionship; it is also said that this refers to one's wife at home. Allah commands kindness towards her (and the wayfarer) Allah commands the honouring of guests. Honouring a guest for three days is the guest's right. The honour bestowed on the guest after the third day is considered a charity on the part of the host; (and (the slaves) whom your right hands possess) Allah commands kindness towards slaves, males and females. (Lo! Allah loveth not such as are proud) in their walking (and boastful) about the bounties of Allah, showing nothing but wantonness and arrogance towards Allah's servants,
Worship God, and associate nothing with Him, and act beautifully toward parents, and toward kinsfolk, orphans, the indigent, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor who is a stranger, and the companion at your side, and the son of the road, and what your right hands own.
This verse begins by mentioning tawḤīd, which is the root of the sciences, the secret of the recognitions, the basis of the religion, the foundation of being a Muslim, and the partition between enemy and friend. Any act of obedience without tawḤīd has no value or weight, and its outcome will be nothing but darkness and captivity. Any act of disobedience along with tawḤīd will yield nothing other than familiarity and brightness.
TawḤīd is that you say that God is one and that you be one for Him. Saying one is the submitter's tawḤīd, and being one is the basis of the recognizer's tawḤīd. The submitter's tawḤīd drives away the devil, washes away sin, and opens up the heart. The recognizer's tawḤīd cuts away attachments, washes away the creatures, and brings forth the realities.
The submitter's tawḤīd takes advice, opens the door, and gives fruit. The recognizer's tawḤīd
effaces the customs of human nature and burns away the veil of mortal nature so that the breeze
of familiarity may blow, the beginningless reminder may arrive, and the friend may gaze upon the Friend.
The submitter's tawḤīd is that you bear witness to God's one Essence, pure attributes, and beginningless names and marks. He is the God other than whom there is no god, the Creator of heaven and earth other than whom there is no enactor. No one has loyalty like Him in the whole cosmos. He is a Lord who is above all in measure, beyond all in Essence and attributes. From the Beginningless to the Endless He is the greatest Lord. When intellect holds that something is impossible, God has perfect power over it. His power makes no use of contrivance, and His selfstanding has no change of state. In the kingdom He is safe from disappearance, and in Essence and attributes He is transcendent.
You will never see any created thing without marks of deficiency and fault, but the Eternal Enactor is pure of deficiency, incomparable with fault, free of blights.
He does not eat or sleep, nor is He the locus for newly arrived things or changing states. He is not new in attribute, nor does He accept alteration. He stands before “when,” acts before activity, creates before creation, and is powerful before the artisanries.
In His Essence, attributes, and perfection He has always been just as He is now.
Shaykh al-Islām Anṣārī said, “The tawḤīd of the Muslims amounts to three words: affirmation of attributes without excess, negation of similarity without declaring ineffectuality, and going forward according to the outwardness without mixing.”
The reality of affirmation is that you acknowledge and surrender to whatever God said in explanation and whatever MuṣṬafā said plainly about Him. You stand firm in the outwardness, you offer no likenesses for it, you do not turn it away from its formulation, and you do not wander around it with imagination, for God comes into knowledge but not imagination. You avoid reflective thinking about how it can be so and you do not seek any self-exertion or interpretation. You do not turn away from saying it or listening to it. You know that in reality whatever creatures know about God's attributes is only the name. To perceive it is to accept it. The stipulation is surrender, and the commentary is to remember.
Know God's Essence in God's measure, not as rationally understood by creatures. Know His attributes as is worthy of Him, not as reflected upon by creatures. Know His ability in His measure, not with the artifice of creatures. He is a Being that is one, outside of imaginations and apart from qualification. Whatever He wants, He does, not because of need, for He needs nothing. Rather, He puts things straight by want, pure knowledge, precedent wisdom, and penetrating power. His speech is true, His promise correct, and His Messenger trustworthy. His speech exists in the earth in reality, always joined with Him. His argument stands through it, His decree is irrevocable, His commands and prohibitions firm. Surely His are the creation and the command. Blessed is God, the Lord of the Worlds [7:54].
This is tawḤīd as transmitted and recognition as reported. Through this tawḤīd people reach paradise, escape from hell, and stay free from the Real's anger. The opposite of this tawḤīd is the great associationism. Whoever is held back from this transmitted tawḤīd remains in the great associationism, far from God's forgiveness.
The other tawḤīd is the tawḤīd of the recognizers and the adornment of the sincerely truthful. Speaking of this tawḤīd is not the work of water and clay, nor is it the place of tongue and heart. What will the tawḤīd-voicer say here with the tongue? His state is itself tongue. How can he express this tawḤīd? Putting it into expression is calumny itself. This tawḤīd is not from creation, for it is a mark from the Real. It is the resurrection of the heart and the plundering of the spirit.
No one has voiced the unity of the One, for everyone who voices it denies it.
The tawḤīd of those who talk of its description is a loan voided by the One.
His tawḤīd is His voicing unity-
its describer's description deviates.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “O God, the recognizer knows You through Your light and cannot express the radiance of finding. The tawḤīd-voicer recognizes You through the light of proximity and burns in the fire of love without turning away from joy. O Lord, in his finding he seeks to find You because he is drowned in bewilderment. He does not know seeking from finding.”
The poor wretch who recognizes Him through the artisanry! The poor man who seeks Him through the evidence! From the artisanry you must seek whatever finds room, and from the evidence you must ask for what is fitting.
How can the reality of tawḤīd cling to the tongue of reports? This is not the tawḤīd reached by inference and striving, nor that proven by evidence and artisanry, nor that realized by any means whatsoever. It is found in the midst of heedlessness, it comes without asking, and it busies the servant with itself. Lit up by the contemplation of the Near and the observation of togetherness, the servant reaps the benefit of beginningless love and loses the two worlds.
If seeing You brings loss to the spirit,
then I'll buy the spirit's loss with the spirit.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “O God, the mark of this work has taken the world away from me and concealed me even from the mark. Seeing You has left me without spirit. Love for You took away benefit, and I lost the two worlds.
“O God, do You know what has made me happy? I did not fall to You by myself.
You wanted-it was not I who wanted. I saw the Friend at my pillow when I woke up from sleep.”
Her love came to me before I knew love-
it came across a carefree heart and took possession.
Moses had gone in search of fire when he found I chose thee for Myself [20:41]. He was unaware when the sun of good fortune rose over him.
MuḤammad was asleep when the good news came: “Come and see Me, for I am buying you.
How long will you sit without Me?”
Moses was not wanting conversation, nor was MuḤammad wanting vision. Finding comes in heedlessness. Do not fancy anything but this.
O God, the splendor of Your exaltedness left no room for allusions, the majesty of Your unity took away the road of ascription-I lost all that I had in hand, and all my fancies turned to nothing. O God, Yours kept on increasing and mine decreasing until at last there remained only what there was at first.
Tribulation lies only in the makeup of my water and clay.
What was before clay and heart? That is what I will be.
With the first tawḤīd the servant escapes from hell and reaches paradise. With the second tawḤīd
he escapes from self and reaches the Friend.
And associate nothing with Him. In the tongue of the Shariah associationism is that you believe in another object of worship and not attest to God's unity. In the tongue of the Tariqah associationism is that you see among the engendered beings an existent thing other than God and you remain with the secondary causes.
Shaykh al-Islām Anṣārī said, “Not seeing the secondary cause is ignorance, but remaining with the secondary cause is associationism.”
Then, in the course of the verse, He mentioned the neighbors and commanded taking what is rightfully due to them into consideration. He said, “and the neighbor who is of kin, and the
neighbor who is a stranger, and the companion at your side.” The neighbors are many, and what is rightfully due to them is in the measure of their proximity. There is the neighbor of the house, the neighbor of the soul, the neighbor of the heart, and the neighbor of the spirit. The neighbor of the house is the Adamite; the neighbor of the soul is the angel; the neighbor of the heart is the tranquility of recognition; and the neighbor of the spirit is the Real-majestic is His majesty!
He called the neighbor of the house “the neighbor who is of kin.
” About the neighbor of the soul He said, “Surely there are over you guardians” [82:10]. Concerning the neighbor of the heart He said, “He it is who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the faithful” [48:4]. About the neighbor of the spirit He said, “He is with you wherever you are” [57:4].
The rightful due of the neighbors of the house is that you never leave aside taking them into consideration. By caring for them you should always keep them thankful to you and at ease with you.
The rightful due of the neighbors of the soul is that you keep them happy with your obedience and do not make them suffer by disobedient acts. Then, when they turn away from you, they will turn away satisfied and grateful.
The rightful due of the neighbor of the heart is that you keep your own recognition pure of the stains of innovation and the defilement of bewilderment and you adorn it with the garment of the Sunnah and the ornament of wisdom.
The rightful due of the neighbor of the spirit is that you rectify your character traits, you observe courtesy to all sides, you fill your mind with reverence, you step beyond the two worlds, you escape from yourself, and you become one for the Real.
It has been reported that God said, “O MuḤammad! Belong to Me as you always were, and I will belong to you as I have always been.”
If you are with yourself, how can you sit with Me?
How far it is from you to Me!
You will not reach Me until you become one: either you'll find room in passion's road, or I.
And worship God, declare His Oneness, and associate nothing with Him. Be kind to parents, being dutiful and gentle-mannered, and near kindred, and to orphans, and to the needy, and to the neighbour who is near, to you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship, and to the neighbour who is a stranger, the one far from you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship; and to the friend at your side, a travelling companion, or a colleague at work, and, it is also said, one’s wife; and to the wayfarer, the one cut off during a journey, and to what your right hands own, of bondsmen. Surely God loves not the conceited, the arrogant, and the boastful, [the one who boasts] before people of what he has been given.
And worship God, make Him the specific object of your orientation and for your your annihilation in Him, that which is the ultimate in self-abasement [before God]; and associate nothing with Him, by affirming His existence. Be kind to parents, be kind in spirit and soul these two from which the heart is generated, for it is your reality: your are nothing but that [heart]. Fulfil your duties towards them and treat them with true consideration by drawing on the effusion of the former [the spirit] and orienting yourselves towards in submission to it and in reverence, and by cleansing the latter [the soul] and preserving it from the filth of the love of this world and from its being abased by covetousness and greed and the like of these or by the evil of Satan and his enmity towards it; help it through compassion and zeal by procuring for it what is its due and preventing it from its shares; and the near kindred, the one who truly corresponds to you in kinship on account of the nearness in terms of original preparedness and spiritual resemblance; and to orphans, those who are prepared but severed from the light of the holy spirit, which is the true father [of these orphans], by being veiled from it, and to the needy, those who perform works but have no wealth, that is, no share of forms of knowledge, gnoses or realities and have thus stood still unable to journey: these are the felicitous, the righteous whose return shall be to the garden of the acts; and to the neighbour who is near, the one who is at one of the stations of wayfaring that is near to your station; and to the neighbour who is a stranger, the one who at his station is distant from your station; and to the friend at your side, the companion who is at the very source of your station and accompanies you on your [spiritual] journey; and to the wayfarer, the one wayfaring on the path of the truth, who has entered into estrangement from the refuge of the soul, the one who has not arrived at any of the stations of the folk of God; and to what your right hands own, those who are under subject to your will and your love, who are your slaves, each according to what corresponds to him and is appropriate to him of the various types of kindness.
If you wish you might interpret 'the near kindred' as that to which the person is conjoined of the disengaged things of the upper kingdom; and 'the orphans' as the spiritual faculties, as has been mentioned already; and 'the needy' as the ego-centric faculties such as the external senses and so on; 'the neighbour who is near' as the intellect; 'the neighbour who is a stranger' as estimation; 'the friend at your side' as yearning or desire; 'the wayfarer' as reflection; 'those owned by the right hand' as the acquired natural traits that are the sources of virtuous acts. Surely God loves not the conceited, who pursues the [spiritual] wayfaring with his soul and not with God, admiring his works [in conceit], and the boastful, who is blissfully gladdened by his states, his stations and perfections, veiled by his inspection of these and by inspecting the fact that he has these attributes.
The Order to Worship Allah Alone and to Be Dutiful to Parents
Allah orders that He be worshipped Alone without partners, because He Alone is the Creator and Sustainer Who sends His favors and bounties on His creation in all situations and instances. Therefore He deserves to be singled out, without associating anything or anyone from His creation with Him in worship. Indeed, the Prophet said to Mu`adh,
«أَتَدْرِي مَا حَقُّ اللهِ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ؟»
(Do you know what Allah's right on His servants is) Mu`adh replied, "Allah and His Messenger know better.'' He said,
«أنْ يَعْبُدُوهُ وَلَا يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا»
(That they should worship Him and should not worship any others with Him.) The Prophet then said,
(Do you know what the right of the servants on Allah is if they do this He should not punish them.) Allah then commands the servants to be dutiful to their parents, for Allah made parents the reason for the servants to come to existence, after they did not exist. Allah joins the order to worship Him with being dutiful to parents in many places. For example, He said,
(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents). After Allah ordained being dutiful to parents, He ordained kind treatment of relatives, males and females. A Hadith states,
(Charity given to the poor is Sadaqah, while charity given to relatives is both Sadaqah and Silah (keeping the relations).) Allah then said,
(orphans), because they lost their caretakers who would spend on them. So Allah commands that the orphans be treated with kindness and compassion. Allah then said,
(Al-Masakin (the poor)) who have various needs and cannot find what sustains these needs. Therefore, Allah commands they should be helped in acquiring their needs in a sufficient manner that will end their inadequacy. We will further elaborate on the matter of the destitute and the poor in Surah Bara'h (9:60).
The Right of the Neighbor
وَالْجَارِ ذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ
(the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that,
وَالْجَارِ ذِى الْقُرْبَى
(the neighbor who is near of kin) means, "The neighbor who is also a relative'', while,
(The neighbor who is a stranger) means, "Who is not a relative.'' It was also reported that `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Maymun bin Mihran, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Qatadah said similarly. Mujahid was also reported to have said that Allah's statement,
(the neighbor who is a stranger) means, "The companion during travel.'' There are many Hadiths that command kind treatment to the neighbors, and we will mention some of them here with Allah's help. The First Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Jibril kept reminding of the neighbor's right, until I thought that he was going to give him a share of the inheritance.) The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. The Second Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Jibril kept reminding me of the neighbor's right, until I thought he was going to appoint a share of the inheritance for him.) Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith, which At-Tirmidhi said was "Hasan Gharib through this route.'' The Third Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As said that the Prophet said,
(The best companions according to Allah are those who are the best with their friends, and the best neighbors according to Allah are the best with their neighbors.) At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said, "Hasan Gharib''. The Fourth Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad said that the Messenger of Allah asked his Companions,
«مَا تَقُولُونَ فِي الزِّنَا؟»
(What do you say about adultery) They said, "It is prohibited, for Allah and His Messenger have prohibited it. So it is forbidden until the Day of Resurrection.'' The Messenger of Allah said,
(If a man steals from his neighbor, it is worse for him than stealing from ten homes.) Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. A similar Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs, Ibn Mas`ud said, "I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! What is the greatest sin' He said,
«أَنْ تَجْعَلَ للهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك»
(To make a rival for Allah while He Alone created you.) I said, `Then' He said,
(To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you.) I said, `Then' He said,
«أَنْ تُزَانِيَ حَلِيلَةَ جَارِك»
(To commit adultery with your neighbor's wife.)'' The Fifth Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah asked the Messenger of Allah, "I have two neighbors, so whom among them should I give my gift'' He said,
«إِلى أَقْرَبِهِمَا مِنْكِ بَابًا»
(The neighbor whose door is the closest to you.) Al-Bukhari narrated this Hadith We will elaborate on this subject in the Tafsir of Surah Bara'h, Allah willing and upon Him we depend.
Being Kind to Slaves and Servants
وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ
(and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess,) this is an order to be kind to them because they are weak, being held as captives by others. An authentic Hadith records that during the illness that preceded his death, the Messenger of Allah continued advising his Ummah:
((Protect) the prayer, (protect) the prayer, and (those slaves) whom your hands possess.) He was repeating it until his tongue was still. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dykarib said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(What you feed yourself is a Sadaqah (charity) for you, what you feed your children is Sadaqah for you, what you feed your wife is Sadaqah for you and what you feed your servant is Sadaqah for you.) An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith which has an authentic chain of narration, all the thanks are due to Allah. `Abdullah bin `Amr said to a caretaker of his, "Did you give the slaves their food yet'' He said, "No.'' Ibn `Amr said, "Go and give it to them, for the Messenger of Allah said,
(When your servant brings meals to one of you, if he does not let him sit and share the meal, then he should at least give him a mouthful or two mouthfuls of that meal or a meal or two, for he has prepared it.) This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.
(Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful.) meaning, one who is proud and arrogant, insolent and boasts to others. He thinks that he is better than other people, thus thinking high of himself, even though he is insignificant to Allah and hated by people. Mujahid said that Allah's statement,
(Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud) means arrogant, while,
(boastful) means boasting about what he has, while he does not thank Allah. This Ayah indicates that such a person boasts with people about the bounty that Allah has given him, but he is actually ungrateful to Allah for this bounty. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Waqid Abu Raja' Al-Harawi said, "You will find that those who are mean are also proud and boasting. He then recited,
وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ
(and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess,) You will find that he who is undutiful (to parents) is also arrogant, and deprived. He then recited,
(Avoid lengthening the dress (below the ankles), for this practice is from arrogance. Verily, Allah does not like arrogance.)''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
"Assahib-i-bil -janb" as used in the Text may imply an intimate friend and also a person who accompanies one at any time. For instance, he may happen to accompany one in the street, or be a fellow customer at a shop, or be a fellow passenger in the bus or in the railway train, etc. Even such a temporary neighborhood requires a civilized and noble person to treat the companion as far as possible kindly, and scrupulously avoid giving him any sort of trouble.
"To conceal the bounty of Allah" is to live in a way as if Allah has not bestowed His bounty upon him. For instance, a rich person conceals Allah's bounty, if he lives below his standard: neither spends money on his own person nor on the members of his family nor on the needy nor for any other good work. In short, his appearance would show him to be in very straitened circumstances. Obviously that is gross ingratitude to Allah.
A Tradition of the Holy Prophet says, "When Allah bestows His bounty on anyone, He likes that he should show it". That is, he should live the life of a well-to-do person who spends money on food, dress, house, furniture, etc., according to his means, and also in the way of Allah in order to show the blessing on him.
And worship God and associate nothing with Him. Be kind to parents and near kindred and to orphans and to the needy and to the neighbor who is near and to the neighbor who is a stranger and to the friend at your side and to the wayfarer and to what your right hands own. Surely God loves not the conceited and the boastful. Those who are niggardly and bid other people to be niggardly and conceal what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty. And We have prepared for those that disbelieve a humbling chastisement. And worship God: Servanthood is attaching yourself closely to the command al-ʿubūdiyyatu muʿānaqatu al-amr and separating yourself from the rebuke wa-mufāraqatu al-zajr. And associate nothing with Him: The outward form of associating another with God shirk is to believe in objects of worship other than Him iʿtiqādu maʿbūdin siwāhi while its hidden form is looking to any existing thing other than Him mulāḥaẓatu mawjūdin siwāhi. Declaring His unity is to recognize that all contingent things are brought into being by God and subsist through Him. He is the One who causes things to happen brings things forth and causes them to remain. There is not an atom a splinter a particle or the slightest trace that belongs to anyone [other than Him that has the capacity to] bring things into existence or orginate new things. The subtle forms of showing off the hidden acts of guile the secret places of pride acting to be seen by created beings seeking the pleasure of their praise and wilting at their rejection and censure-all that is hidden idolatry shirk khafī. Be kind to parents: Acting kindly iḥsān follows degrees of association for you have been commanded to observe [your parents'] rights first because they are your kin and you were raised by them and reached your full maturity and knowledge through them. When your association and companionship have become sound and good with your near kindred the poor the needy the orphans and those of their class you will be raised up from that to become worthy of His companionship سبحانه. And to the neighbor who is near and to the neighbor who is a stranger and to the friend at your side: Among your neighbors are your two angels so do not annoy them with your disobedience bi-ʿiṣyānika and observe their right in what you give them to record in your acts of kindness min iḥsānika.
If the neighbor next to your home is entitled to your kindness and the observation of his right then the neighbor next to your self nafs which is your heart qalb deserves even more that you do not neglect or disregard it and that you do not enable vile thoughts to come to it. And if this applies to the neighbor of your self then the neighbor of your heart which is your spirit rūḥ is even more deserving that you protect its right and do not enable that which is in discord with it from the familiar comforts and things close [to the lower self]. The neighbor of your spirit which is your innermost self sirr is even more deserving that you watch over its right and do not enable its absence from the homesteads of witnessing awṬān al-shuhūd at all times. The allusion in His words “And He is with you wherever you are” [57:4] is unambiguous to the hearts of those who possess realization. Those who are niggardly... In scholarly terms niggardliness is holding back from what is obligatory. According to the explanation by allusion bayān al-ishāra [niggardliness] is not showing a preference for others īthār in times of need. To bid others to niggardliness is to shield them from the sacred demands muṬālabāt al-ḥaqāÌiq by showing sympathy for them with regard to the law. For example a spiritual traveler might have stripped himself of all attachments and cut himself off from all that is not necessary but then someone advises him saying “Maybe you are not strong enough for this and with your circumstances it would be permissible and more appropriate for you to become a beggar. Maybe you should go out and ask from others. That would not be a burden on other Muslims.” And [this person] relates reports traditions and the like on this topic. If it were not for the niggardliness residing in his heart he would assist [the traveler] in the aspiration that has come to his heart instead of holding him back with his counsel. Whoever is like this quickly becomes despicable inasmuch as he has extinguished the sparks of the spiritual desire of this weak soul through what he thinks is good advice and sympathy with respect to the law.
And conceal what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty that is if God has freed them from seeking bounty by what He has granted and given them they conceal that coveting more without warrant. It is said they conceal what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty when an aspirant comes before them and asks for something that would save him and they are stingy with him in giving him guidance irshād. It is said that the niggardliness of the rich is holding back wealth niʿma and the niggardliness of the poor is holding back aspiration himma.
..to the neighbour who is close, and the neighbour who is a stranger, to the companion at your side, and to the wayfarer… He said:As for the outward meaning: the neighbour who is a stranger is the one who is not related to you and is foreign; the companion at your side is your fellow traveller, or it has also been said that it is your spouse; and the wayfarer (ibn al-sabīl) means the guest. As for its inner meaning: the neighbour who is near refers to the heart (qalb); the neighbour who is a stranger is the ⸢self in its natural state (al-nafs al-ṭabīʿī)⸣; and the companion by your side is the intellect (ʿaql), which is guided by the sharīʿa. The wayfarer refers to the bodily members (jawāriḥ) which are in a state of obedience to God. This is the inner meaning of the verse.His words: