The Quran

Commentaries for 4.165

An Nisa (The women) - النساء

4.165 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Messengers) We have sent all these messengers (of good cheer) giving the good news of Paradise for those who believe (and of warning) of hell for those who disbelieve in Allah, (in order that mankind might have no argument) on the Day of Judgement (against Allah after the messengers) after sending the messengers, such that they cannot say: You have not sent us any messenger. (Allah was ever Mighty) in His vengeance against those who do not believe in His messenger, (Wise) He decreed that they should believe in the messengers.
4.165 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
messengers (rusulan, substitutes for the previous rusulan, ‘messengers’) bearing good tidings, of reward for those that believe, and warning, of punishment for those that disbelieve; We sent them, so that people might have no argument, to make, against God after, the sending of, the messengers, to them, and say: Our Lord, why did you not send a messenger to us so that we might follow Your signs and be among the believers [Q. 28:47]; thus We sent them to pre-empt such excuses. God is ever Mighty, in His kingdom, Wise, in His actions.
4.165 Kashani - Kashani
messengers bearing good tidings, of the self-disclosures of the attributes of [divine] gentleness, and warning, of the self-disclosures of the attributes of the [divine] vanquishing, so that people might have no argument against God, [no] manifestation [of their souls] or mastery by the existence of some attribute after these have been removed and effaced as a result of the [spiritual] reinforcement of the messengers. God is ever Mighty, Powerful, vanquishing them by effacing their attributes and annihilating their essences, Wise, only doing that out of the wisdom entailed in their assumption of His attributes or their subsistence in His Essence.
4.163-165 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Revelation Came to Prophet Muhammad, Just as it Came to the Prophets Before Him
Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad said that `Ikrimah, or Sa`id bin Jubayr, related to Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Sukayn and `Adi bin Zayd said, `O Muhammad! We do not know that Allah sent down anything to any human after Musa.' Allah sent down a rebuttal of their statement,
إِنَّآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ كَمَآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ
(Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him.)'' Allah states that He sent down revelation to His servant and Messenger Muhammad just as He sent down revelation to previous Prophets. Allah said,
إِنَّآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ كَمَآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ
(Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him,) until,
وَءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُوراً
(...and to Dawud We gave the Zabur. ) The `Zabur' (Psalms) is the name of the Book revealed to Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him.
Twenty-Five Prophets Are Mentioned in the Qur'an
Allah said,
وَرُسُلاً قَدْ قَصَصْنَـهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلاً لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ
(And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you) Before the revelation of this Ayah. The following are the names of the Prophets whom Allah named in the Qur'an. They are: Adam, Idris, Nuh (Noah), Hud, Salih, Ibrahim (Abraham), Lut, Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya`qub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joesph), Ayyub (Job), Shu`ayb, Musa (Moses), Harun (Aaron), Yunus (Jonah), Dawud (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Ilyas (Elias), Al-Yasa` (Elisha), Zakariya (Zachariya), Yahya (John) and `Isa (Jesus), and their leader, Muhammad. Several scholars of Tafsir also listed Dhul-Kifl among the Prophets. Allah's statement,
وَرُسُلاً لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ
(and Messengers We have not mentioned to you,) means, `there are other Prophets whom We did not mention to you in the Qur'an.'
The Virtue of Musa
Allah said,
وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيماً
(and to Musa Allah spoke directly.) This is an honor to Musa, and this is why he is called the Kalim, he whom Allah spoke to directly. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded that `Abdul-Jabbar bin `Abdullah said, "A man came to Abu Bakr bin `Ayyash and said, `I heard a man recite (this Ayah this way): وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهَ مُوسَى تَكلِيمًا "and to Allah, Musa spoke directly.'' Abu Bakr said, `Only a disbeliever would recite it like this.' Al-A`mash recited it with Yahya bin Withab, who recited it with Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami who recited it with `Ali bin Abi Talib who recited with the Messenger of Allah,
وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيماً
(and to Musa Allah spoke directly.)''' Abu Bakr bin Abi Ayyash was so angry with the man who recited the Ayah differently, because he altered its words and meanings. That person was from the group of Mu`tazilah who denied that Allah spoke to Musa or that He speaks to any of His creation. We were told that some of the Mu`tazilah once recited the Ayah that way, so one teacher present said to him, "O son of a stinking woman! What would you do concerning Allah's statement,
وَلَمَّا جَآءَ مُوسَى لِمِيقَـتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ
(And when Musa came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him,) 7:143'' The Shaykh meant that the later Ayah cannot be altered or changed.
The Reason Behind Sending the Prophets is to Establish the Proof
Allah said,
رُّسُلاً مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ
(Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning,) meaning, the Prophets bring good news to those who obey Allah and practice the good things that please Him. They also warn against His punishment and torment for those who defy His commandments. Allah said next,
لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً
(in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.) Allah sent down His Books and sent His Messengers with good news and warnings. He explained what He likes and is pleased with and what He dislikes and is displeased with. This way, no one will have an excuse with Allah. Allah said in other Ayat,
وَلَوْ أَنَّآ أَهْلَكْنَـهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لَوْلا أَرْسَلْتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولاً فَنَتَّبِعَ ءَايَـتِكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن نَّذِلَّ وَنَخْزَى
(And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this, they would surely have said: "Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger, we should certainly have followed Your Ayat, before we were humiliated and disgraced.'') and,
وَلَوْلا أَن تُصِيبَهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ
(And if (We had) not (sent you to the people of Makkah) in case a calamity should seize them for (the deeds) that their hands have sent forth. ) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا أَحَدَ أَغْيَرُ مِنَ اللهِ، مِنْ أَجْلِ ذلِكَ حَرَّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ، وَلَا أَحَدْ أَحَبْ إِلَيْهِ الْمَدْحُ مِنَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، مِنْ أَجْلِ ذلِكَ مَدَحَ نَفْسَهُ، وَلَا أَحَدَ أَحَبْ إِلَيْهِ الْعُذْرُ مِنَ اللهِ، مِنْ أَجْلِ ذلِكَ بَعَثَ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِين»
(No one is more jealous than Allah. This is why He prohibited all types of sin committed in public or secret. No one likes praise more than Allah, and this is why He has praised Himself. No one likes to give excuse more than Allah, and this is why He sent the Prophets as bearers of good news and as warners.) In another narration, the Prophet said,
«مِنْ أَجْلِ ذلِكَ أَرْسَلَ رُسُلَهُ وَأَنْزَلَ كُتُبَه»
(And this is why He sent His Messengers and revealed His Books.)
لَّـكِنِ اللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكَ أَنزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيداً - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّواْ ضَلَـلاَ بَعِيداً - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَظَلَمُواْ لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلاَ لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقاً
4.163-166 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This is to emphasize the fact that the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be peace) has not come with a new thing and that he does not claim to present something for the first time, but he has, in fact, received Guidance from the same source of knowledge from which all the Prophets before him had received, and that he too is presenting the same Truth and Reality that has always been presented by the Prophets, who were raised from different corners of the Earth.
The literal meaning of wahi is: (1) to give hint of, (2) to communicate to the mind, (3) to convey by covert suggestion, and (4) to send a message.
Only a part of the Book of Psalms in the existing Bible consists of the Psalms of the Prophet David, and they bear his name. Its remaining constituent parts are the psalms of other people, and have been attributed to their authors. It should also be noted that the study of the real Zabur, the Psalms of David, shows that it is a Revelation of God. Likewise, additions have been made in the Book of the Proverbs of Solomon and the last two chapters were obviously added afterwards. But, in spite of this, the major portion of the Proverbs contains gems of Truth and Wisdom. The same is true of the Book of Job. A study of this reveals that, though it contains gems of wisdom, it is wrong to attribute the whole of it to the Prophet Job. Whereas the Qur'an and the introductory chapters of this very Book bear witness to the great fortitude shown by the Prophet Job, its subsequent chapters show that he was an embodiment of grievance against God, and that, in vain, did his companions try their best to convince him that God was not unjust.
Besides these, the major portions of the seventeen Books of the Israelite Prophets in the Old Testament are evidently genuine Revelations; especially the Books of Joshua, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Amos and some others contain many such passages that show the grandeur of Divine Revelation and move one to ecstasy. Their high moral teachings, their campaign against idolatry and their sound arguments prove the Oneness of God, and their strong criticism of the degeneration of Israel clearly shows that these and the sermons of Jesus Christ in the New Testament and the Qur'an came from one and the same source.
The way Revelation was communicated to the Prophet Moses was different from that of the other Prophets. They heard either a voice or a Message from an angel, but the Prophet Moses had this privilege that Allah Himself had a direct talk with him as in a dialogue, e.g., the dialogue cited in Ta Ha, XX :11-48 in the Qur'an. This privilege has also been mentioned in the Bible: "......And the Lord spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend." (Exodus 33:11).
That is, all the Prophets had one and the same mission. They gave good news to those who believed in the Divine Message and mended their ways in accordance with it and warning to those who adopted wrong ways of thought and action that they would meet with serious sequences in the end.
The Prophets were sent with the sole object that they should set forth before mankind the Right Way, both theoretically and practically, so that on the Day of Judgment no evil-doer should be in a position to offer the excuse that he was ignorant of the Truth. That is why Allah appointed Messengers in different parts of the world and sent down Books. These Messengers imparted the knowledge of the truth to a large number of people and left behind them Books of which one or the other has always existed for the guidance of mankind. Now if one goes astray in spite of this arrangement, one cannot throw the blame on Allah and His Messengers. He himself is responsible for this because he did not accept the Truth when it came to him, or the responsibility is of those who had the knowledge of it but did not impart it to others who had gone astray.
4.165 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
messengers bearing good tidings and warning so that people might have no argument against God after the messengers. God is ever Mighty Wise. He informed created beings of the measure of [the messengers'] worth. He explained that He sent the messengers to them and that they should look to them alone for the gathering of their reward and to avoid what would make them deserving of punishment. [He explained] that created beings have no [other] way to the comfort they seek or the hurt they wish to avoid in the present or in the end. So that people might have no argument against God after the messengers. God is ever Mighty Wise: How could one who has need ḥāja of God have an argument ḥujja against Godḍ But God addressed them in accordance with their understandings.