Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(What concern hath Allah for your punishment) why should Allah punish you (if ye are thankful (for His mercies)) if you believe inwardly in His divine Oneness (and believe (in Him)) and you have faith inwardly? (Allah is ever Responsive) He is responsive for the little that is done in His sake and rewards abundantly for it, (Aware) of those who are thankful and of those who are not.
Why would God chastise you if you are thankful, of His favours, and believe, in Him? (the interrogative is meant as a denial, in other words: He would not punish you). God is ever Thankful, of the deeds of believers, rewarding them, Knowing, of His creation.
Allah forbids His believing servants from taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. This includes being friends and associates of the disbelievers, advising them, being intimate with them and exposing the secrets of the believers to them. In another Ayah, Allah said,
(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself). meaning, He warns you against His punishment if you fall into what He has prohibited. This is why Allah said here,
(Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves) meaning, proof against you that warrants receiving His torment. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn `Abbas commented;
(manifest Sultan), "The word Sultan in the Qur'an means proof. '' There is an authentic chain of narration for this statement, which is also the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and An-Nadr bin `Arabi.
The Hypocrites and the Friends of Disbelievers are in the Lowest Depth of the Fire, Unless they Repent
(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire;) on the Day of Resurrection due to their tremendous Kufr. Al-Walibi `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said,
فِى الدَّرْكِ الاٌّسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ
(in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire;) means, in the bottom of the Fire. Other scholars said that the Fire has ever lower depths just as Paradise had ever higher grades. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that,
(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire), "Inside coffins of Fire that surround them, for they are closed and sealed in them.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when Ibn Mas`ud was asked about the hypocrites, he said, "They will be placed in coffins made of fire and they will be closed in them in the lowest depth of the Fire.''
وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيراً
(no helper will you find for them. ) to save them from their misery and painful torment. Allah then states that whoever among the hypocrites repents in this life, Allah will accept his repentance and sorrow, if his repentance were sincere and he then follows it by performing righteous deeds, all the while depending on his Lord. Allah said, a
(Except those who repent (from hypocrisy), do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah) replacing showing off with sincerity, so that their good deeds will benefit them, even if they were minute.
فَأُوْلَـئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(then they will be with the believers.) on the Day of Resurrection,
(Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him.) by correcting your actions and having faith in Allah and His Messenger,
وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَـكِراً عَلِيماً
(And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.) Allah appreciates those who appreciate Him, and has knowledge of those whose hearts believe in Him, and He will give them perfect rewar.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That person, who dedicates his Faith to Allah, devotes his whole life earnestly and faithfully for Him and reserves all his loyalties, interests, and affections for Him alone. In short, his attachment to Allah becomes so intense that he is ready to sacrifice anything for Him.
That is, "If you show your sincere gratitude to Allah and do not adopt an attitude of ingratitude and treachery towards Him in regard to the benefits and blessings you have received from Him, there is no reason why He should punish you for nothing."
The right attitude of gratitude is that one should sincerely appreciate the kindness of the benefactor, acknowledge it with his tongue and show his gratitude by his conduct. This implies three things: First, the grateful person should attribute the kindness to the real benefactor and should not associate anyone else with him in gratitude and acknowledgment. Second, he should be full of the feelings of love and loyalty for his benefactor and should not cherish any such feelings for the opponents of the benefactor. Third, he should be obedient to his benefactor, and should not in any way use or employ the benefits conferred on him against the will of the benefactor.
The word shakir, when applied to Allah, means that He appreciates the worth of the services of His servant; and when applied to the servant, it means that he expresses his gratitude to his Lord for His blessings. Allah appreciates fully the quantity and the quality of the services that are rendered by His servants for His cause and deprives none of them of the due rewards: nay, He rewards their services most generously and gives much more than they deserve. Of course, His treatment of His servants is quite different from their own treatment of their fellow-men. They under-estimate the worth of the services rendered by a fellow- man and take him to task severely for an omission. Allah in His bounty rewards much more generously than His servant deserves for any service rendered by him in His cause, but is very lenient and forgiving for any omission or neglect of duty shown by His servants.
Why would God chastise you if you are thankful and believeḍ God is ever Thankful Knowing. This verse is among the verses which evoke beautiful hope and powerful optimism because He has appointed two things as tokens of protection from punishment. These are thankfulness shukr and belief īmān which are simple and light-hearted qualities. Thankfulness or praise is an assertion qāla and belief or faith is a state ḥāla. When He is pleased with a servant's words and state He makes the way easy for him. Thankfulness or praise shukr is only sound when heard from one who is faithful rather than one who is not because it is an act of willing obedience Ṭāʿa. The obedience of those who have no faith is not genuine. And believe that is [believe or come to believe] in the end. It is as if He is explaining that salvation will only be for those who at the end of the day believe. The meaning of the verse then is that God will not chastise you with the chastisement of abiding [in hell] if you are thankful in your present state and believe in the end. It is said that when you are thankful and believe you attest to the fact that your salvation [comes] through God not through your thankfulness or your belief. It is said that thankfulness is witnessing the blessing from God and belief is seeing God in the blessing. It is as if He said “If you understand the blessing as coming from God then let not the witnessing of this blessing cut you off from witnessing the One who gives the blessing.” Wa kāna Allāh shākiran ʿalīman means God is ever Thankful Knowing Allāh shākirun ʿalīmun. The meaning of His being “thankful” is that He is the One who commends the servant and the One who bears witness to him in what he does. This is because the true sense and definition of thankfulness is praise for the one who acts in a beautiful way muḥsin by mentioning the beautiful action he does iḥsān. “The servant gives thanks to God” means he praises Him for His beautiful action iḥsān toward him which is His blessing to him. “The Lord gives thanks to the servant” means that He praises [the servant] for his beautiful action iḥsān which is his willing obedience Ṭāʿa to Him.
God praises him for what he does in willing obedience even though He knows his many sins. It is said that [God] is thankful to or praises [the servant] even though He knows that he will return again to his unseemly actions. It is said that [God] is thankful to [the servant] because He knows his weakness. It is [also] said that He is thankful to him because He knows that [the servant] is not refusing to obey and that his aim is not to oppose His Lord. Rather he sins because of the overwhelming desires that are part of being human. It is said that [the servant] is thankful to [God] because the servant knows in his sinful condition that he has a Lord who pardons him.