The Quran

Commentaries for 4.131

An Nisa (The women) - النساء

4.131 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Unto Allah belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens) of stores (and whatsoever is in the earth) of stores and other things. (And We charged those who received the Scripture before you) i.e. the people of the Torah We charged them in the Torah, and the people of the Gospel in the Gospel, and the people of every Scripture in their Scripture, (and (We charge) you) O Community of Muhammad in your Book, (that you keep your duty towards Allah) obey Allah. (And if you disbelieve) in Allah, (lo! Unto Allah belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens) of angels as soldiers (and whatsoever is in the earth) of humans, jinn and other creatures as soldiers, (and Allah is ever Absolute) free from the need of your faith, (Owner of Praise) for His actions, He is grateful for whatever little is done for His sake and rewards abundantly for it.
4.131 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
To God belongs everything in the heavens and everything in the earth, and We have charged those who were given the Book before you, and you, to be wary of God.
“You who are worshipers and abstainers, come totally into the street of godwariness and make godwariness your shelter. Leave aside the road of uncertainty and suspicion.” He says this and commands it. Then He gives success to one group, and He puts another group into the road of abandonment. To all of them He gives awareness: “I am without needs. I have no benefit from the obedience of the one given success, nor any loss from the disobedience of the one abandoned. Everything in the heavens and the earth is My possession and kingdom. All are My predetermined things and artifacts. Had I wanted, I would have created all successful, or all abandoned. No one can protest against Me, and there is no turning away from My decree.”
In the third verse, He says,
4.131 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. We have charged those who were given the Scripture, meaning the scriptures, before you, namely, the Jews and Christians, and you, O people of the Qur’ān: ‘Fear God’, fear His punishment, by being obedient to Him. And We said to them and to you: ‘If you disbelieve, in what you have been charged with, then to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth’, as creatures, possessions and servants, and He will not be harmed by your disbelief: God is ever Independent, of the need for His creation or their worship, Praised, praise-worthy for what He does with them.
4.131-134 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Necessity of Taqwa of Allah
Allah states that He is the Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is the Supreme Authority over them. Hence Allah's statement,
وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّـكُمْ
(And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you) meaning, We have recommended to you what We recommended to the People of Scriptures; Taqwa of Allah, by worshipping Him Alone without partners. Allah then said,
وَإِن تَكْفُرُواْ فَإِنَّ للَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ
(But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth). In another Ayah, Allah said that Musa said to his people,
إِن تَكْفُرُواْ أَنتُمْ وَمَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ جَمِيعًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌ
("If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (free of any need), Owner of all praise.''). Allah said,
فَكَفَرُواْ وَتَوَلَّواْ وَّاسْتَغْنَى اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ غَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌ
(So they disbelieved and turned away. But Allah was not in need (of them). And Allah is Rich (free of any need), Worthy of all praise) meaning, He is far too Rich than to need His servants, and worthy of all praise in all His decisions and commandments. The meaning of Allah's statement,
وَللَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلاً
(And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.) He has perfect watch over every soul, knowing what it deserves, He is the Watcher, and Witness of all things. Allah's statement,
إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِـاخَرِينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ قَدِيراً
(If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.) means, He is able to take you away and replace you with other people if you disobey Him. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,
الْفُقَرَآءُ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُواْ
(And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes) Allah's statement,
مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةِ
(Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter.) means, O those whose ultimate desire is this life, know that Allah owns the rewards of this life and the Hereafter. Therefore, if you ask Allah for both, He will enrich you, award you and suffice for you. As Allah said,
فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَـسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ ءَابَآءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَـقٍ - وِمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الاٌّخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ أُولَـئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ
(But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world!'' and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!'' For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned),
مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ حَرْثَ الاٌّخِرَةِ نَزِدْ لَهُ فِى حَرْثِهِ
(Whosoever desires (by his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward), and
مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَـجِلَةَ عَجَّلْنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَآءُ لِمَن نُّرِيدُ
(Whoever desires the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world), We readily grant him what We will for whom We like) until,
انظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ
(See how We prefer one above another (in this world)). So Allah said here,
وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً
(And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)
4.131 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. We have charged those who were given the scripture before you and you [to] “Fear God.” “If you disbelieve then to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth”; God is ever Independent Praised. [God] obligated everyone to return to Him and to avoid everything other than Him and to hold to His command but one party has been given success and another abandoned. Then He taught the people of realization that He is independent of the obedience of every friend ghanīyun ʿan Ṭāʿati kulli walīyin and innocent of the error of every one who strays wa-barīÌun ʿan zallati kulli ghawīyin.