The Quran

Commentaries for 34.5

Al Saba (The Saba) - سبإ

34.5 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(But those who strive against) those who deny (Our revelations) Muhammad (pbuh) and the Qur'an, (challenging (Us)) those will not escape Our punishment, (theirs will be a painful doom of wrath) they will have a severe chastisement.
34.5 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
And those who strive against, [who strive] to invalidate, Our signs, namely, the Qur’ān, deeming Us inomnipotent (mu‘ajjizīna, a variant reading [of this] here and later on [in verse 38, below] is mu‘ājizīna: [so that respectively these mean] ‘deeming that We are incapable’ [mu‘ajjizīna], or [if read mu‘ājizīna] ‘vying with Us, in order to elude Us’) for they suppose that there is no [such thing as] resurrection or punishment — for such there will be a chastisement of an awful punishment’ (read either alīmin or alīmun [respectively] as an adjectival qualification of rijzin, ‘punishment’ or ‘adhābun, ‘chastisement’).
34.3-6 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Hour will come so that each Person will be rewarded or punished in accordance with His Deeds
This is one of three Ayat -- there is no fourth -- where Allah commands His Messenger to swear by His Almighty Lord that the resurrection will surely come, because the stubborn followers of disbelief denied that it would happen. One of these Ayat is in Surah Yunus, where Allah says:
وَيَسْتَنْبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ قُلْ إِى وَرَبِّى إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ وَمَآ أَنتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ
(And they ask you to inform them (saying): "Is it true'' Say: "Yes! By my Lord! It is the very truth! and you cannot escape it!'') (10:53). The second of these Ayat is this one:
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لاَ تَأْتِينَا السَّاعَةُ قُلْ بَلَى وَرَبِّى لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ
(Those who disbelieve say: "The Hour will not come to us.'' Say: "Yes, by my Lord, it will come to you...''). And the third of them appears in Surat At-Taghabun, where Allah says:
زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُواْ قُلْ بَلَى وَرَبِّى لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ وَذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ
(The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for reckoning). Say: "Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of what you did; and that is easy for Allah'') (64:7). And Allah says here:
قُلْ بَلَى وَرَبِّى لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ
(Say: "Yes, by my Lord, it will come to you...'') Then Allah is described in a manner that affirms that:
عَـلِمِ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَلاَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ أَصْغَرُ مِن ذَلِكَ وَلاَ أَكْبَرُ إِلاَّ فِى كِتَـبٍ مُّبِينٍ
(the All-Knower of the Unseen, not even the weight of a speck of dust or less than that or greater escapes His knowledge in the heavens or in the earth but it is in a Clear Book.) Mujahid and Qatadah said, "Nothing is hidden or concealed from Him.'' In other words, everything is encompassed by His knowledge, and nothing is hidden from Him. Even though bones may be scattered and disintegrate, He knows where they have gone and where they have dispersed, then He will bring them back just as He created them in the first place, because He has knowledge of all things. Then Allah tells us of His wisdom in re-creating bodies and bringing about the Hour, as He says:
لِّيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ وَالَّذِينَ سَعَوْا فِى ءَايَـتِنَا مُعَاجِزِينَ
(That He may recompense those who believe and do righteous good deeds. Those, theirs is forgiveness and generous provision. But those who strive against Our Ayat to frustrate them) meaning, those who try to turn others away from the path of Allah and who disbelieve His Messengers,
أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مِّن رِّجْزٍ أَلِيمٌ
(those, for them will be a severe painful torment.) This means, He will bestow His favor upon the blessed, who are the believers, and will punish the doomed, who are the disbelievers. This is like the Ayah:
لاَ يَسْتَوِى أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ أَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَآئِزُونَ
(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) (59:20)
أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ
(Shall We treat those who believe and do righteous good deeds like those who cause mischief on the earth Or shall We treat those who have Taqwa as the evildoers) (38:28)
وَيَرَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ هُوَ الْحَقَّ
(And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth,) This is another kind of wisdom, following on from the one before, which is that when those who believed in what was revealed to the Messengers see the onset of the Hour and how the righteous and the wicked will be rewarded and punished respectively, which they knew of beforehand in this world from the Books of Allah and which they are now seeing with their own eyes, they will say:
لَقَدْ جَآءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ
(Indeed, the Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth) (7:43). And it will be said:
هَذَا مَا وَعَدَ الرَّحْمـنُ وَصَدَقَ الْمُرْسَلُونَ
(This is what the Most Gracious had promised, and the Messengers spoke truth!) 36:52
لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهَـذَا يَوْمُ الْبَعْثِ
(Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah, until the Day of Resurrection; so this is the Day of Resurrection) (30:56),
وَيَرَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ هُوَ الْحَقَّ وَيَهْدِى إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ
(And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, and that it guides to the path of the Exalted in might, Owner of all praise.) The Exalted in might is the One Who is All-Powerful, Whom none can overwhelm or resist, but He subjugates and controls all things. The Owner of All praise is the One Who, in all His words, deeds, laws and decrees, is deserving of praise, may He be glorified and exalted.
34.3-6 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This they said satirically and mockingly. What they meant was: "This Prophet has been giving us the news of his coming of Resurrection for along tune now, but Resurrection has not overtaken us so far although we have openly denied and rejected him as a Prophet, have been insolent to him and have ridiculed him in every way."
The use of the attribute "Knower of the unseen" for Allah while swearing by him by itself points to the fact that the coming of Resurrection is certain, but no one knows except Allah, Knower of the unseen, when exactly it will come. This same theme has been explained at different places in the Qur'an in various ways. For details, see AI-A'raf: 187, Ta Ha: 15. Luqman: 34, Al-Ahzab: 63, Al-hulk: 25-26, An-Naziyat: 42-44.
This is one of the arguments for the possibility of the Hereafter as is being stated in verse 7 below. One of the reasons why the deniers of the Hereafter regarded the life-after-death as irrational was ;' They said that when all human beings will have become dust after death, and scattered away in particles, how it will be possible to bring all the countless particles together and combine them to be re-created as the same human bodies once again. This doubt has been dispelled, saying, "Every particle wherever it is, is recorded in God's Register, and God knows where a particle is. Therefore, when He wills to recreate, He will not face any difficulty in gathering together all the particles of the body of each and every man. "
The above was an argument for the possibility of the Hereafter: this is an argument for its need and necessity. It means: A time must come when the wicked should be requited for their wickedness and the righteous rewarded for their righteousness. Reason wants and justice demands that a worker of goodness should be rewarded and a worker of evil punished. Now when you see that in the present worldly life neither is an evildoer fully requited for his evil nor a worker of goodness for his goodness, rather there are opposite results of evil and goodness in most cases, you should admit that this necessary demand of both reason and justice must be fulfilled at some time in the future. Resurrection and the Hereafter will be the same time. It is not its coming but its not coming which is contrary to reason and against justice.
In this connection, another point becomes evident from the preceding verses. They tell that the result of faith and righteous acts is forgiveness and a bounteous provision, and for those who strive and act antagonistically in order to discredit and defeat Allah's Religion, there will be a torment of the worst kind. This makes it manifest that he who believes sincerely will not be deprived of forgiveness even though he may not get a bounteous provision owing to some flaw or weakness in his deeds. And the one who is a disbeliever but who does not adopt an attitude of enmity and antagonism towards the true Faith, will not be able to avoid the torment but he will be saved from the worst torment.
That is, "These antagonists cannot succeed in their object to prove the truth presented by you false, however hard they may try, for they can only delude and misguide the ignorant people by their designs. Those possessed of knowledge cannot be deceived by them. "