Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Allah hath not assigned unto any man two hearts within his body) this was revealed about Abu Ma'mar Jamil Ibn Asad who was called “the one with two hearts” because of his measured speech, (nor hath He made your wives whom ye declare (to be your mothers)) by a simple oath ((to be your mothers) your mothers) as your mother in relation to unmarriageability-this was revealed about Aws Ibn al-Samit the brother of 'Ubadah Ibn al-Samit and his wife Khawlah-, (nor hath he made those whom ye claim (to be your sons)) those whom you adopted in order to help and strengthen you (your sons) like your real sons. (This is but a saying of your mouths) between yourselves. (But Allah saith the Truth) Allah explains the Truth (and He showeth the way) and lead to what is right.
God has not placed two hearts inside any man: [this was revealed] in order to refute those disbelievers who said that they each had two hearts with which they could reason better than Muhammad’s single mind; nor has He made your wives whom (read as allā’ī, or allā’) you repudiate by zihār (read tazzahharūna, or tuzāhirūna; the original tā’ [of tatazāharūna] has been assimilated with the zā’) — a man would say to his wife for example, ‘You are for me as [untouchable as] my mother’s back’ — your mothers, in other words, [He has not made you wives] like [your] mothers, so that they are illicit [for conjugality] in that respect, [a practice] which in pre-Islamic times was considered a [valid form of] divorce. An atonement with [necessary] conditions is necessary in such a case, as mentioned in sūrat al-Mujādila [Q. 58:2-3]. Nor has He made those whom you claim as [adopted] sons (ad‘iyā’, the plural of da‘iyy, which is one claimed as the son of one who is not his [biological] father) your sons, in reality. That is a mere utterance of your mouths, namely, [of] the Jews and the hypocrites. When the Prophet (s) married Zaynab bt. Jahsh, who had been Zayd b. Hāritha’s wife, the adopted son of the Prophet (s), they said, ‘Muhammad married his son’s wife!’, and so God proved them liars in this. But God speaks the truth, in this [matter], and He guides to the way, the way of truth.
Before Allah discusses ideas and theoretical matters, He gives tangible examples: one man cannot have two hearts in his body, and a man's wife does not become his mother if he says the words of Zihar to her: "You are to me like the back of my mother.'' By the same token, an adopted child does not become the son of the man who adopts him and calls him his son. Allah says:
(They cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth) (58:2).
وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ
(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) This was revealed concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Prophet. The Prophet had adopted him before prophethood, and he was known as Zayd bin Muhammad. Allah wanted to put an end to this naming and attribution, as He said:
وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ
(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. ) This is similar to the Ayah later in this Surah:
(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) (33:40). And Allah says here:
ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ
(That is but your saying with your mouths.) meaning, `your adoption of him is just words, and it does not mean that he is really your son,' for he was created from the loins of another man, and a child cannot have two fathers just as a man cannot have two hearts in one body.
(But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said:
(But Allah says the truth,) means, justice. Qatadah said:
وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ
(and He guides to the way) means, the straight path. Imam Ahmad said that Hasan told them that Zuhayr told them from Qabus, meaning Ibn Abi Zibyan, that his father told him: "I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Do you know the Ayah,
(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.) What does this mean' He said that the Messenger of Allah stood up one day to pray, and he trembled. The hypocrites who were praying with him said, `Do you not see that he has two hearts, one heart with you and another with them' Then Allah revealed the words:
(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.)'' This was also narrated by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "It is a Hasan Hadith''. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from the Hadith of Zuhayr.
An Adopted Child should be named after His Real Father
(Call them (adopted sons) by their fathers, that is more just with Allah.) This is a command which abrogates the state of affairs that existed at the beginning of Islam, when it was permitted to call adopted sons after the man who adopted them. Then Allah commanded that they should be given back the names of their real fathers, and states that this was more fair and just. Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said: "Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Messenger of Allah, was always called Zayd bin Muhammad, until (the words of the) Qur'an were revealed:
(Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah.)'' This was also narrated by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. They used to deal with them as sons in every respect, including being alone with them as Mahrams and so on. Hence Sahlah bint Suhayl, the wife of Abu Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said: "O Messenger of Allah! We used to call Salim our son, but Allah has revealed what He has revealed. He used to enter upon me, but I feel that Abu Hudhayfah does not like that. The Prophet said:
«أَرْضِعِيهِ تَحْرُمِي عَلَيْه»
(Breastfeed him and he will become your Mahram. )'' Hence when this ruling was abrogated, Allah made it permissible for a man to marry the ex-wife of his adopted son, and the Messenger of Allah married Zaynab bint Jahsh, the divorced wife of Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, Allah said:
(The wives of your sons from your own loins) (4:23). The wife of an adopted son is not included because he was not born from the man's loins. A "foster'' son through breastfeeding is the same as a son born from one's own loins, from the point of view of Shari`ah, because the Prophet said in the Two Sahihs:
(Suckling makes unlawful as lineage does.) As for calling a person "son'' as an expression of honor and endearment, this is not what is forbidden in this Ayah, as is indicated by the report recorded by Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers -- apart from At-Tirmidhi -- from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "We young boys of Banu `Abd Al-Muttalib came to the Messenger of Allah at the Jamarat; he slapped us on the thigh and said,
(O my sons, do not stone the Jamarah until the sun has risen.) This was during the Farewell Pilgrimage in 10 AH.
(Call them by their fathers.) This is concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him. He was killed in 8 AH at the battle of Mu'tah. In Sahih Muslim it is reported that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah said:
(O my son.)'' It was also reported by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi.
(But if you know not their father's then they are your brothers in the religion and Mawalikum (your freed servants).) Here Allah commands that adopted sons should be given back their fathers' names, if they are known; if they are not known, then they should be called brothers in faith or freed servants, to compensate for not knowing what their real lineage is. When the Messenger of Allah left Makkah after performing his `Umrat Al-Qada', the daughter of Hamzah, may Allah be pleased with her, started following him, calling, "O uncle, O uncle!'' `Ali took her and said to Fatimah, may Allah be pleased with her, "Take care of your uncle's daughter,'' so she picked her up. `Ali, Zayd and Ja`far -- may Allah be pleased with them -- disputed over of which of them was going to take care of her, and each of them gave his reasons. `Ali said, "I have more right, because she is the daughter of my paternal uncle.'' Zayd said, "She is the daughter of my brother.'' Ja`far bin Abi Talib said: "She is the daughter of my paternal uncle and I am married to her maternal aunt -- meaning Asma' bint `Umays.'' The Prophet ruled that she should stay with her maternal aunt, and said:
«الْخَالَةُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْأُم»
(The maternal aunt has the same status as the mother.) He said to `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him,
«أَنْتَ مِنِّي وَأَنَا مِنْك»
(You belong to me and I belong to you.) He said to Ja`far, may Allah be pleased with him,
«أَشْبَهْتَ خَلْقِي وَخُلُقِي»
(You resemble me both in your looks and in your attitude.) And he said to Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him,
«أَنْتَ أَخُونَا وَمَوْلَانَا»
(You are our brother and our freed servant.) This Hadith contains a number of rulings, the most important of which is that the Prophet ruled according to the truth, and that he sought to appease all the disputing parties. His saying to Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him,
«أَنْتَ أَخُونَا وَمَوْلَانَا»
(You are our brother and our freed servant.) is as Allah says in this Ayah:
فَإِخوَانُكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَمَوَلِيكُمْ
(your brothers in faith and your freed servants. ) Then Allah says:
(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake,) meaning, if you call one of them after someone who is not in fact his father, by mistake, after trying your best to find out his parentage, then Allah will not attach any sin to this mistake. This is like the Ayah in which Allah commands His servants to say:
(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) meaning, the sin is on the person who deliberately does something wrong, as Allah says elsewhere:
(Allah will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths) (2:225). Imam Ahmad narrated from Ibn `Abbas that `Umar said: "Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed to him the Book. One of the things that was revealed in it was the Ayah of stoning, so the Messenger of Allah stoned adulterers and we stoned them after he died.'' Then he said, "We also used to recite, `Do not attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers, for this is disbelief, to attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers.''' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Three things that people do are parts of disbelief: slandering a person's lineage, wailing over the dead and seeking rain by the stars.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That is, "One and the same person cannot be a believer and a hypocrite, truthful and false, wicked and righteous, at one and the same time. He does not have two hearts in this chest that one should have sincerity in it and the other fearlessness of God. Therefore, a man can have only one kind of character. at a time: either he will be a believer or a hypocrite, a disbeliever or a Muslim. Now if you call a believer a hypocrite, or a hypocrite a believer, it will not change the reality. The true character of the person will inevitably remain the same."
Zihar is a term in Arabic. In old days when an Arab; in the heat of a domestic quarrel, would say to his wife: "Your back for me is as the back of my mother," it was thought that the woman was no longer lawful for him because he had compared her to his mother. About this Allah says: "A woman does not become a man's mother just because he has called her his mother or compared her to his mother. His mother is the woman who bore him. Only his Balling his wife his mother cannot change the reality." (For the Islamic Law concerning Zihar, see Surah Mujadalah: 2-a).
This is what is intended to be said. The two preceding sentences are meant to support and emphasize this same point.
The first reform introduced in connection with the implementation of this Command was that Zaid, the adopted son of the Holy Prophet, began to be.called Zaid bin Harithah, after his real father, instead of Zaid bin Muhammad. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nasa'i have related this tradition from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin `Umar that in the beginning the people called Zaid bin Harithah Zaid bin Muhammad. After the revelation of this verse they began calling him Zaid bin Harithah. Moreover, after this Revelation it was forbidden that a person should assign his parentage to any other man than his own real father. Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Da'ud have related on the authority of Hadrat Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas that the Holy Prophet said: "Paradise is forbidden for the one who called himself son of another person than his own father. " Other traditions bearing on the subject have been related in Ahadith, which have regarded this as a heinous sin.
That is, even in such a case it will not be right to ascribe the parentage of a person to someone else.
It means: "There is no harm if a person is called a son out of love. Likewise, there is no sin if someone calls another one a mother, or a daughter, or sister or brother, etc. out of affection and regard, but if such a thing is said with the intention that the one being called so will be accorded the same status and position and rights and privileges as actually belong to these relations, it would certainly be objectionable and one will be held answerable for it. "
That is, 'Allah has forgiven the errors already committed in this regard; no one will be called to account for them." Another meaning is: "Allah does not call a people to account for actions done unintentionally. He will not punish a person for doing something which he did not do intentionally although it resembled a forbidden act apparently."
God has not placed two hearts inside any man…He said:The one who has directed himself to God, Mighty and Majestic is He, and is intent upon (qaṣdan) [Him], [does not] avert his gaze (iltifāt) [from Him]. For whoever pays attention to anything other than God is not truly intent upon his Lord. Indeed God, Exalted is He, says, God has not placed two hearts inside any man…It has been said:[That is, he does not have] one heart (qalb) with which he approaches God, and another heart with which he manages the affairs of this world. [On the other hand], the intellect (ʿaql) does have two natures (ṭabʿān): a nature which is orientated towards this world, and a nature which is orientated towards the Hereafter. The nature which is orientated to the Hereafter is in coalition (mūʾtalif) with the spiritual self (nafs al-rūḥ), whereas [the intellect’s] worldly-orientated nature is in coalition with the lustful self (nafs shahwāniyya). It was due to this that the Prophet [prayed], ‘Do not leave me to my self for the blinking of an eye.’ For truly the servant, ⸢as long as he is occupied with God, will be veiled from himself, and⸣ as long as he is occupied with himself will be veiled from God, Mighty and Majestic is He.His words, Exalted is He:
(Allah hath not assigned unto any man two hearts within his body…) [33:4]. This verse was revealed about Jamil ibn Ma'mar al-Fihri who was a sensible man who memorised whatever he heard. The Quraysh said: “He could not have memorised all these things unless he had two hearts”. Labib used to say: “I have two hearts and my perception by means of either one of them is better than the perception of Muhammad”. When the Battle of Badr took place and the idolaters were defeated, Abu Sufyan met Jamil ibn Ma'mar, who had accompanied the idolaters. Jamil was wearing one shoe and holding the other shoe in his hand. Abu Sufyan asked him: “What is the state of people?” He said: “They were defeated”. Abu Sufyan asked him again: “But why are you wearing one shoe and holding the other in your hand?” Jamil said: “I thought I was wearing both shoes”. On that day, people knew that he would not have forgotten his shoe in his hand if he really had two hearts. (hath He made those whom ye claim (to be your sons) your sons) [33:4]. This verse was revealed about Zayd ibn Harithah. He was a slave of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, but he freed him and adopted him before he was sent as a Prophet. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh, who was the divorcee of Zayd ibn Harithah, the Jews and hypocrites said: “Muhammad has married the wife of his son while forbidding people from doing the same!” And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse. Sa'id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Nu'aym al-Ishkabi informed us> al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Makhlid> Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Thaqafi> Qutaybah ibn Sa'id> Ya'qub ibn 'Abd al-Rahman> Musa ibn 'Uqbah> Salim> 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar who used to say: “We did not use to call Zayd ibn Harithah with any other name except Zayd ibn Muhammad until the Qur'an revealed (Proclaim their real parentage. That will be more equitable in the sight of Allah) [33:5]”. This was narrated by Bukhari> Mu'alla ibn Asad> 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Mukhtar> Musa ibn 'Uqbah.