The Quran

Commentaries for 31.10

Luqman - لقمان

31.10 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(He hath created the heavens without supports that ye can see) it is also said that this means: He created the heavens with supports that you cannot see, (and hath cast into the earth) and created in the earth (firm hills) firm mountains as supports for it, (so that it quake not with you; and He hath dispersed therein) He created and spread in the earth (all kinds of beasts) possessed of spirits. (And We send down water) rain (from the sky and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein) in the earth.
31.10 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see (‘amad is the plural of ‘imād, which is an ustuwāna, ‘a column’) — this is the truth since there are no actual pillars — and cast high mountains into the earth, lest it shake with you, and He dispersed therein all kinds beasts. And We sent down (there is a shift from the third [to the second] person) water from the heaven and We caused to grow in it of every splendid kind, [every] fair specimen.
31.10-11 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Proofs of Tawhid
Thus Allah explains His mighty power in creating the heavens and the earth, and everything that is within them and between them. He says:
خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ
(He has created the heavens without any pillars) Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "It does not have any pillars, visible or invisible.''
وَأَلْقَى فِى الاٌّرْضِ رَوَاسِىَ
(and has set on the earth firm mountains) means, the mountains which stabilize and lend weight to the earth, lest it should shake with its water. Allah says:
أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ
(lest it should shake with you.)
وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ
(And He has scattered therein moving creatures of all kinds) means, He has placed throughout it all kinds of animals, the total number of whose kinds and colors is known to no one except the One Who created them. When Allah tells us that He is the Creator, He also reminds us that He is the Provider, as He says:
وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ
(And We send down water from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein in pairs,) meaning, every kind of good produce in pairs, i.e., they are beautiful to look at. Ash-Sha`bi said: "People are also produce of the earth, so whoever enters Paradise is goodly and whoever enters Hell is vile.''
هَـذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ
(This is the creation of Allah.) means, all that Allah has mentioned here of the creation of the heavens and earth and everything in between stems from His power of creation and control alone, and He has no partner or associate in that, Allah says:
فَأَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ
(So, show Me that which those besides Him have created.) those idols and rivals whom you worship and call upon.
بَلِ الظَّـلِمُونَ
(Nay, the wrongdoers) means the idolators who associate others in worship with Allah
فِى ضَلَـلٍ
(in error) means, they are ignorant and blind.
(plain) means, it is clear and obvious, and not at all hidden.
31.10-11 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
After the above introductory sentence, the discourse now turns to the real theme, i.e.., the refutation of shirk and the invitation to Tauhid.
The actual words bi -ghair i amad-in tarauna-ha in the Text may have two meanings:
(1) "You can see for yourself that they stand without pillar"; and
(2) 'they stand on the pillars which you cannot see"
Ibn 'Abbas and Mujahid have favored the second meaning, and many other commentators take the first meaning. If the meaning is expressed in terms of the natural sciences of the present day, it can be said that the countless stars and planets in the heaven have been established in their positions and orbits without any visible support and prop: there are no strings and wires which might have tied them together; there are no iron bars which might be withholding them from falling on one another. It is the law of gravitation which is supporting the system. This interpretation is according to the present-day knowledge. It may be that tomorrow some new addition to our knowledge enables us to interpret the reality better.
For explanation, see E. N. 12 of Surah An-Nahl.
"These others" 'the beings whom you have set up as your deities, whom you regard as makers and un-makers of your destinies, whom you have been worshiping as such persistently"
That is, "When they do not point out in this universe any creation of anyone else than Allah, and obviously they cannot, their setting up the non creators as associates in Godhead and bowing before them in worship and invoking them for help, is nothing but mere stupidity, because their foolish conduct cannot be explained in any other way. Unless a person has taken leave of his senses he cannot commit the folly that he should himself admit before you that his deities are non-creators and that Allah alone is the Creator, and yet insist on their being the deities. If somebody has a little of the common sense, he will inevitably think how the one who has no power to create anything, and who has no share whatever in the creation of anything in the earth and heavens, can be our deity. Why should man bow before it and adore it as a deity? Does it possess any power that it could fulfill one's needs and requirements? Even if it hears one's prayers, whet could it do to answer them when it did not have any power to create anything? For, evidently, afflictions can be removed only by him who can create something and not by him who can create nothing."