The Quran

Commentaries for 3.45

Al Imran (The family of Imran) - آل عمران

3.45 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
((And remember) when the angels) i.e. Gabriel (said: O Mary! Allah giveth you glad tidings of a Word from Him) of a son who shall come into being by means of a Word from Allah, (whose name is the Messiah) because he travels from one country to another; it is also said: the Messiah means the king, (Jesus, son of Mary, illustrious in the world) he has standing and position amidst people in the life of this world (and the Hereafter) he has standing and position with Allah, (and one of those brought near) unto Allah in the Garden of Eden.
3.45 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
When the angels said, “O Mary, surely God gives thee the good news of a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, celebrated in this world and the next, and one of those given proximity.”
In this verse the God of the universe, the enactor of the world's folk, the assigner of daily provisions to the servants, the bestower of bounty and the lovingly kind, the caresser of the friends, caresses Mary and honors her. With this honoring He gives her excellence over the women of the world and separates her from all of them.
First, He calls her with the vocative of honor, saying “O Mary.” Exalted is this address! Exalted is this call! Thousands of thousands of prophets and friends went, either in the repose of having found it, or in remorse and hope for it. O spirit of the world! If a thousand times you call on Him saying, “My Lord, my Lord,” that is not like His calling on you once, “My servant, My servant.” Even if you accept Him in lordhood, that gains you nothing, for in any case His lordhood is inseparable from you. What does the work is that once He should accept you for servanthood.
Abū Yazīd BasṬāmī said, “God stood me before Him in a thousand standing places, presenting the empire to me, but I was saying, 'I do not desire it.' In the last standing place He said to me, 'O Abū Yazīd, what do you desire?' I said, 'I desire not to desire,'” that is, I desire what You desire. “Then He said, 'You are My servant in truth.'”
Even if you do not have the gall to speak with God like Abū Yazīd, you are not too small to present your need to Him, to show Him your burning and hope, and to say, “O Lord, a name and mark is enough for me! You have come from Your threshold to place a name on me. Whatever name You want, let it be.”
A man went to the bazaar to buy a slave. They presented the slaves to him and he chose one to buy. He said, “O slave, what's your name?” He said, “First buy me so that I may belong to you. Then call me by whatever name you want.”
When you are His servant, He will call you by whatever name He wants and keep you in whatever attribute He wants.
Master Abū ʿAlī said, “I saw an old man who was rushing from this wall to that wall, having become helpless and distracted. Because of my youth I asked him, 'O shaykh! What have you been drinking?'
“He said, 'Is it not enough that the Lord God of the world has let me know that He created me and that He is my Lord. Is something else needed?'”
Of passion for You is it not enough to have a heart adorned by union with You?
Another caress of Mary was that the Lord of the Worlds wrote out the inscription of chosenness for her in two places, at the beginning and the end of a single verse. He said, “He has chosen thee and made thee pure, and He has chosen thee above the women of the worlds” [3:42]. Who among
the women of the world has the honor that she has? She was free of this world and the world's folk, as He says: “[I dedicate to Thee] what is in my belly as someone free” [3:35]. The one who accepted and approved of her in that freedom was God: “So her Lord accepted her with a beautiful acceptance” [3:37]. Her place and seat were the mosque and the prayer-niche, and in that place her daily provision was coming to her from God's threshold: “[Zachariah] found provision with her” [3:37]. Then also she was pious and obedient to God's command: “And she was one of the devout” [66:12]. In her greatness and truthfulness she had God as her witness: “And his mother was a sincerely truthful woman” [5:75]. Even more wonderful than this was her child, who came without father and was God's spirit. That is in His words, “The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was but God's messenger, and His word that He cast to Mary, and a spirit from Him” [4:171]. In this verse, the Lord of the Worlds gave Jesus four names: Messiah, Jesus, Word, and Spirit. In other words, Jesus was God's messenger brought into existence by His speech, which He threw to Mary, and a spirit given by His bestowal.
In this verse He says, “a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, celebrated in this world and the next.” His face is recognized and his name good in this world and the next, and he is honored by God. He has various charismatic gifts and miracles, one of which is that he came from his mother without a father. Another is that he is the result of the inblowing of Gabriel. Third is that he appeared from an uncreated word. Fourth is that He gave him wisdom and knowledge in infancy. That is in His words,
3.45 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Mention, when the angels, namely, Gabriel, said, ‘O Mary, God gives you good tidings of a Word from Him, that is, a boy, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, He addresses her attributing him to her in order to point out that she will give birth to him without a father, for, the custom is to attribute the child to its father, honoured shall he be in this world, through prophethood, and the Hereafter, through [his] intercession and the high stations [al-darajāt al-‘ulā, cf. Q. 20:75], and of those brought close, to God.
3.45 Kashani - Kashani
'God gives you good tidings of a Word, the heart, bestowed, from Him, whose name is the Anointed one, because he shall anoint you with light, honoured shall he be in this world, because of his perception of particulars and his determining of the means of livelihood in the best, purest and most correct way, such that the human beings of the outer faculties and the jinn of the inner faculties obey, revere and exalt him, and, in, the Hereafter, because of his perception of universal meanings and holy gnoses and his management of the final return and his guiding to the Truth such that We shall grant him the kingdom of the heaven of the spirit and honour him, being among those brought near to the presence of the Truth, accepting of His self-disclosures and unveilings.
3.45-47 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Delivering the Good News to Maryam of `Isa's Birth
This Ayah contains the glad tidings the angels brought to Maryam that she would give birth to a mighty son who will have a great future. Allah said,
إِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يمَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكِ بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنْهُ
((Remember) when the angels said: "O Maryam! Verily, Allah gives you the glad tidings of a Word from Him,) a son who will come into existence with a word from Allah, `Be', and he was. This is the meaning of Allah's statement (about Yahya)
مُصَدِّقاً بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ
(Believing in the Word from Allah.) 3:39, according to the majority of the scholars.
اسْمُهُ الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ
(His name will be Al-Masih, `Isa, the son of Maryam) and he will be known by this name in this life, especially by the believers. `Isa was called "Al-Masih'' (the Messiah) because when he touched (Mash) those afflicted with an illness, they would be healed by Allah's leave. Allah's statement,
عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ
(`Isa, the son of Maryam) relates `Isa to his mother, because he did not have a father.
وَجِيهًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةِ وَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ
(Held in honor in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allah.) meaning, he will be a leader and honored by Allah in this life, because of the Law that Allah will reveal to him, sending down the Scripture to him, along with the other bounties that Allah will grant him with. `Isa will be honored in the Hereafter and will intercede with Allah, by His leave, on behalf of some people, just as is the case with his brethren the mighty Messengers of Allah, peace be upon them all.
`Isa Spoke When He was Still in the Cradle
Allah said,
وَيُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِى الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلاً
(He will speak to the people, in the cradle and in manhood,) calling to the worship of Allah Alone without partners, while still in the cradle, as a miracle from Allah, and when he is a man, by Allah's revelation to him.
Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَا تَكَلَّمَ مَوْلُودٌ فِي صِغَرِهِ إِلَّا عِيسَى وَصَاحِبُ جُرَيْج»
(No infant spoke in the cradle except `Isa and the companion of Jurayj.)
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,
«لَمْ يَتَكَلَّمْ فِي الْمَهْدِ إِلَّا ثَلَاثَةٌ: عِيسَى، وَصَبِيٌّ كَانَ فِي زَمَنِ جُرَيْجٍ، وَصَبِيٌّ آخَر»
(No infant spoke in the cradle except three, `Isa, the boy during the time of Jurayj, and another boy.)
وَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ
(And he will be one of the righteous.) in his statements and actions, for he will possess, pure knowledge and righteous works.
`Isa was Created Without a Father
When Maryam heard the good news that the angels conveyed from Allah, she said;
رَبِّ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِى بَشَرٌ
("O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.'')
Mary said, "How can I have a son while I did not marry, nor intend to marry, nor am I an indecent woman, may Allah forbid'' The angel conveyed to Maryam, Allah's answer,
كَذَلِكَ اللَّهُ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ
(So (it will be) for Allah creates what He wills.)
He is Mighty in power and nothing escapes His ability. Allah used the word `create' here instead of the word `does' as in the tale about Zakariyya 3:40, to eradicate any evil thought concerning `Isa. Allah next emphasized this fact when He said,
إِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
(When He has decreed something, He says to it only: "Be! ـ and it is.) meaning, what Allah wills, comes into existence instantly and without delay. In another Ayah, Allah said,
وَمَآ أَمْرُنَآ إِلاَّ وَحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ
(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) 54:50, meaning, "We only issue the command once, and it comes into existence instantly, as fast as, and faster than, a blink of the eye. ''
3.45-49 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That is, "Although no man has touched you, yet a son shall be born to you." It should be noted that the same word "kazalika, "meaning "so shall it be," had been used in response to Zacharias' prayer. It, therefore, carries the same sense here. Moreover, the whole context here corroborates the story that Mary was given the glad tidings of the birth of a son without any sexual intercourse, and the birth of Christ, in actual fact, took place in that unusual way. If a son was to be born to her in the normal known way, and if the event of the birth of Jesus had taker. place in a natural way, then the whole discourse starting from verse 33 and ending with verse 63 would become absolutely pointless. Not only that but all other references to the unusual birth of Jesus in the Qur'an would lose their significance and meaning. The Christians had made Jesus the Son of God and worthy of worship simply because of his unusual birth without a father and the Jews had accused Mary because they had witnessed that she had given birth to a child, though she was not married. Had it been otherwise, then the two groups could have been told plainly that the girl was married to such and such a man and that Jesus was from his seed. In that case, one fails to see the reason why such a long introduction and a series of arguments should have been necessary to remove all doubts about his miraculous birth. Then Jesus could have been called the son of a particular man, instead of being called "the son of Mary". The position of those people who, on the one hand, profess to believe the Holy Qur'an to be the Word of Allah and on the other hand try to prove that Jesus was born after the natural coming together of a husband and wife, really try to show that Allah is not able to express Himself as clearly as these people. (May God protect us from blasphemy!)
3.45-46 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
When the angels said “O Mary God gives you good tidings of a word from Him whose name is the Messiah Jesus son of Mary honored shall he be in this world and the hereafter and of those brought close. He shall speak to mankind in the cradle and in his manhood and he is of the righteous.” She was not given good tidings about her portion in this world or her fortunes in the hereafter. Rather she was given good tidings verifying that [she was receiving a] tremendous sign in [the birth of Jesus] and [that] he was a prophet of God-it was a confirmation of the miracle. It is said that He informed her that whoever succumbs to the overwhelming force of the divine power qudra and ends up before His ruling ḥukm will encounter miracles of that power the likes of which no one has experienced. Mary had surely lived for a long time with an excellent reputation and was well-known as a chaste [woman] but then [God] caused confusion about her situation [when she] appeared in a state deemed blameworthy by people. In actuality it was not as the foolish thought. Their eyes were blocked from seeing the flow of the divine decree jaryān al-taqdīr. It is said that He informed her of what would happen to [her son] step by step and in detail. He told her that he would live in such as way that he shall speak to mankind as a young child and in his manhood and that the deception of [his] enemies would not affect him. It is said in manhood [means] after his descent from the heavens. It is said that He fortified her heart by informing her that while she herself would hold her tongue regarding her innocence [after the birth] God would cause Jesus عليه السلام to speak [as a child] as proof of her sincerity and exalted honor.