Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Allah then mentioned their accompaniment of the Prophet (pbuh) in the lesser Badr (Badr al-Sughra), saying: (As for those who heard the call of Allah) answered Allah by obeying Him (and His messenger) by accompanying him in the lesser Badr (after the harm) on the Day of Uhud (befell them (in the fight); for such of them as do right) by accompanying the Prophet (pbuh) at the lesser Badr (and ward off (evil)) ward off contravention against Allah and disobeying the Messenger, (there is great reward) abundant reward in Paradise,
They rejoice in blessings from God and bounty, and that God does not leave to waste the wage of the faithful, those who answered God and the Messenger after the wound had befallen them.
Those who bow their heads before the command of God and the Messenger in passion for the religion made their own dear spirits the target of the enemy's arrows. They made their spirits a gift, their bodies a path, and their hearts a sacrifice. They bought that suffering and wounding with spirit and heart.
Sarī SaqaṬī said, “God appeared to me in a dream saying, 'O Sarī! We created the creatures. Some of them saw this world and clung to it. Some of them saw trial, and they fled to paradise and well-being. Some of them thought nothing of trial and took the tribulation into their spirits and hearts, asking for union with Us. Which one of these are you? What do you want?'”
Sarī said, “I answered, 'You know what I desire.'”
How often will you ask, why do you make me suffer?
In truth you know my state better than I.
“He said, 'O Sarī! By the majesty of Our measure, We will strike your head with the whip of trial, and We will make the millstone of tribulation revolve on your head.'”
Sarī said, “I replied with the light of recognition by lordly inspiration, 'Are You not the one who sends trials?'”
The lover's soul is patient with illness-
perhaps He who made him ill will one day make him well.
Since the healing, O Heart-taker, is from Your wound and pain, make no balm for the wounded, don't cure the pain!
Those who (alladhīna, is the subject) responded to God and the Messenger, [to] his call to set out for battle: when Abū Sufyān and his companions wanted to resume [hostilities] they agreed with the Prophet (s) that the encounter would be at the [annual] market-fair of Badr a year from the date of Uhud; after the wounds had afflicted them, at Uhud — (the predicate of the subject [alladhīna] is [what follows]) for all those who were virtuous, by obeying him, and feared, to disobey him, shall be a great wage, namely, Paradise.
[For] those who responded to God, by being annihilated in the Essential unity, and to the Messenger, with the station of true uprightness, after the wounds, that is, the breaking of the soul, had afflicted them, for all those who were virtuous, who stood firm at the station of witnessing, and were wary, of their remainders, shall be a great wage, after faith, and that is the spirit of the witnessing.
Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, "We asked `Abdullah about this Ayah,
(Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps. Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything' They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise' Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.' Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.)''' There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.) Muslim collected this Hadith
In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.' Allah said, `I will convey the news for you.') Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)
Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak said that these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.
Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad' I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.' He said,
(Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil However, He spoke to your father directly. He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.' He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.' The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life). ' He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those I left behind.') Allah revealed,
(The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.)
Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best. UImam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him. This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams. Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.)
This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.
فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ
(They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them) indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah's cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah's cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise. The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, "A part of the Qur'an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.'''
(They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers) 3:171.
Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "They were delighted and pleased because of Allah's promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.''
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded) 3:172.
This occurred on the day of Hamra' Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "When the idolators returned towards Makkah after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.' When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad. The idolators said, `Rather, we will meet next year', and the Messenger of Allah went back to Al-Madinah, and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.)
Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said to `Urwah about the Ayah;
الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger)
"My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them. After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolators went back, he feared that the idolators might try to come back and he said, `Who would follow them' Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.
(Those unto whom the people said, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' But it (only) increased them in faith) 3:173, it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help,
وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
(and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.'')
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,
حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
("Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.'')
"Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire. Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.' But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.''' Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah 3:173.
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land,
(and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)
Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,
فَانْقَلَبُواْ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah,) "The `Grace' was that they were saved. The `Bounty' was that a caravan passed by, and those days were Hajj season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.''
(so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning, "If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me. Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.'' Similarly, Allah said,
(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) 40:51,52
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This verse alludes to those devoted servants of Islam who willingly accompanied the Holy Prophet in his pursuit of the Quraish at that critical juncture.
After the Battle of Uhd, the Quraish marched back towards Makkah. When they had covered a good deal of distance from Al-Madinah, they realized that they had not utilised the golden opportunity of crushing the power of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) and they began to regret: what a folly have we committed by losing that excellent chance! Accordingly, they halted and held a council of war. Though they were in favour of returning to Al-Madinah and making a sudden attack, yet they could not muster up courage and continued their march towards Makkah. At the same time, the Holy Prophet surmised an attack from the enemy; so he assembled the Muslims on the next day after the battle of Uhd and said, "Let us go in pursuit of the Quraish." Although that was a very critical situation, yet the believers and the devoted servants of Allah responded to the call and willingly marched with the Holy Prophet to Hamra-ul-Asad, a place at a distance of 8 miles from Al-Madinah.
VV. 173-175 were sent down a year after the Battle of Uhd, but have been included in this discourse because they deal with the events which are connected with the same.
This refers to the terrifying rumours which were being spread in Al-Madinah. On the occasion of his return from Uhd, Abu Sufyan had challenged the Muslims to a fight the following year at Badr. But when the time approached, he could not fmd courage on account of the famine that was raging in Makkah. So in order to save face, he tried to shift on to the Muslims the responsibility for the postponement. Accordingly, he sent a special spy to Al-Madinah to terrify them by spreading rumours that the Quraish were making great preparations for war and collecting such a large army as could defeat any army in Arabia. This device of Abu Sufyan succeeded in producing the desired panic. When the Holy Prophet made an appeal to the Muslims to meet the Quraish in combat at Badr, it failed to produce any encouraging response. So much so that the Messenger of Allah had to declare before the gathered assembly, "I will go to the combat all alone, if none else is willing to go." It was then that 1,500 devotees volunteered to accompany him, and he reached Badr with them. From the other side,Abu Sufyan left Makkah with an army of 2,000 men. But after two days' journey, he told his men that it did not appear to suit them to have a fight that year, and that they would come next year for it. Accordingly, he returned to Makkah with his men. The Holy Prophet, however, waited for him at Badr for eight days. During these days, his Companions did profitable business with a trading party. Then he came to know that the disbelievers had gone back to Makkah, and he returned to Al Madinah.
[For] those who responded to God and the Messenger after the wounds had afflicted them those who did good among them and feared shall be a great wage. [The meaning of the tenth form verb] “to respond” istijāba has an element of merit and superiority over [the meaning of the fourth form verb] “to answer” ijāba. This is an allusive distinction rather than [a distinction] required [linguistically] by the Arabic. It [means] that they respond willingly not under compulsion. They respond to God without [their response] entailing the bearing of a difficulty. Rather [they respond] by the directive of the heart's core ishārat al-qalb and the love of the heart fuÌād and the choice of the spirit rūḥ and find delight in bearing [God's] decree ḥukm. So the response to the Real [comes] from recognizing the reality of His existence bi-l-taḥaqquq bi-wujūdihi and the response to the Messenger عليه السلام [comes] from taking on character traits as prescribed by [God's] limits bi-takhalluq bi-ḥudūdihi. The response of the Real [comes] from the quintessence of the truth of lordship bi-l-ṣafāÌ fī ḥaqqi al-rubūbiyya and the response of the Messenger عليه السلام [comes] from fidelity in upholding servanthood bi-l-wafāÌ fī iqāmati al-ʿubūdiyya. After the wounds had afflicted them: [This refers to] the beginning of their transactions before the appearance of the lights of disclosure to their hearts and the smiling of the realities in their innermost selves. Those who did good among them: “Doing good is that you worship God as if you see Him”-and this is witnessing mushāhada and fear of God taqwā-”for if you do not see Him He sees you”-and this is awareness [of God watching you] murāqaba in the state of spiritual struggle mujāhada. A great wage for novices later li-ahli al-bidāyati muÌajjalan and for adepts now wa-li-ahli al-nihāyati muʿajjalan.
(As for those who heard the call of Allah and His messenger…) [3:172]. Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Muqri' informed us> Shu'ayb ibn Muhammad> Makki ibn 'Abdan> Abu'l-Azhar> Rawh> Abu Yunus al-Qushayri> 'Amr ibn Dinar who reported that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, made a general call to arms after the Battle of Uhud, when the idolaters had departed, and seventy men answered his call and he went after the retreating army of the idolaters. On his way back to Mecca, Abu Sufyan met a caravan from Khuza'ah and he said to them: “If you see Muhammad coming after me, tell him that we are in great numbers”. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, met them and asked them about Abu Sufyan, they said to him: “We saw him with a huge army whereas yours is very small; you will not be safe with him”. But the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, refused to listen to them and went after him. But Abu Sufyan went ahead of him and entered Mecca. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (As for those who heard the call of Allah and His messenger) up to His saying (Fear them not; fear Me, if ye are true believers) [3:175]. 'Amr ibn Abi 'Amr informed us> Muhammad ibn Makki> Muhammad ibn Yusuf> Muhammad ibn Isma'il> Muhammad> Abu Mu'awiyah> Hisham ibn 'Urwah> his father> 'A'ishah who said to 'Urwah [ibn al-Zubayr] regarding Allah's saying (As for those who heard the call of Allah and His messenger): “O my nephew! Your father, al-Zubayr, and grandfather, Abu Bakr, were among them. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, suffered that which he suffered at the Battle of Uhud, and after the idolaters had left, he feared their return, and so he said: 'Who will go after them?' He selected seventy men from amongst them, among whom were Abu Bakr and al-Zubayr”.