The Quran

Commentaries for 3.170

Al Imran (The family of Imran) - آل عمران

3.170 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Jubilant (are they) because of that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty) of His honouring, (rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind:) rejoicing because their brothers who are still in this world will join them because they have been given the good news that they will (that there shall no fear come upon them) when others are struck with fear (neither shall they grieve) when others grieve.
3.170 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Rejoicing (farihīna, a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing yurzaqūn, ‘sustained’) in what God has given them of His bounty, and, they are, rejoicing, joyful, for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind, from among their believing brothers (allādhīna, ‘those who’, may be substituted by [what follows, sc. ‘rejoicing…that no fear’]): that no fear shall befall them, those that have not yet joined them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter, meaning, they rejoice for their [brothers’ future] security and felicity (allā [of allā khawfun] is an-lā, meaning, bi-an lā).
3.170 Kashani - Kashani
Joyful in what God has given them of His bounty, in the way of an honouring, graces and nearness to God, and rejoicing for, the state of their brethren, those who have not joined them but are left behind, and have not yet attained degrees like theirs [being as they are] behind them, because they will be made joyous soon with the like of their state and will join them, that no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve: an inclusive substitution for 'those who' (alladhīna), that is to say, they rejoice [for them] that they shall be safe and that no fear shall befall them, and that neither shall they grieve.
3.169-175 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Virtues of the Martyrs
Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, "We asked `Abdullah about this Ayah,
وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَتاً بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)
He said, `We asked the Messenger of Allah the same question and he said,
«أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ، لَهَا قَنَادِيلُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ، تَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شَاءَتْ، ثُمَّ تَأْوِي إِلَى تِلْكَ الْقَنَادِيلِ، فَاطَّلَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمُ اطِّلَاعَةً فَقَالَ: هَلْ تَشْتَهُونَ شَيْئًا؟ فَقَالُوا: أَيَّ شَيْءٍ نَشْتَهِي وَنَحْنُ نَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شِئْنَا؟ فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ، فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُتْرَكُوا مِنْ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوا، قَالُوا: يَا رَبِّ نُرِيدُ أَنْ تَرُدَّ أَرْوَاحَنَا فِي أَجْسَادِنَا حَتَّى نُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِكَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى، فَلَمَّا رَأَى أَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ حَاجَةٌ، تُرِكُوا»
(Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps. Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything' They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise' Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.' Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.)''' There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَا مِنْ نَفْسٍ تَمُوتُ، لَهَا عِنْدَ اللهِ خَيْرٌ، يَسُرُّهَا أَنْ تَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا، إِلَّا الشَّهِيدُ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسُرُّهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا فَيُقْتَلَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى، لِمَا يَرَى مِنْ فَضْلِ الشَهَادَة»
(No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.) Muslim collected this Hadith
In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَمَّا أُصِيبَ إِخْوَانُكُمْ بِأُحُدٍ، جَعَلَ اللهُ أَرْوَاحَهُمْ فِي أَجْوَافِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ، تَرِدُ أَنْهَارَ الْجَنَّـةِ، وَتَأْكُلُ مِنْ ثِمَارِهَا، وَتَأْوِي إِلى قَنَادِيلَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ فِي ظِلِّ الْعَرْشِ، فَلَمَّا وَجَدُوا طِيبَ مَشْرَبِهِمْ وَمَأْكَلِهِمْ، وَحُسْنَ مُتَقَلَّبِهِمْ قَالُوا: يَا لَيْتَ إِخْوَانَنَا يَعْلَمُونَ مَا صَنَعَ اللهُ لَنَا، لِئَلَّا يَزْهَدُوا فِي الْجِهَادِ، وَلَا يَنْكُلُوا عَنِ الْحَرْبِ، فَقَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: أَنْا أُبَلِّغُهُمْ عَنْكُم»
(When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.' Allah said, `I will convey the news for you.') Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,
وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَتاً بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)
Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak said that these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.
Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad' I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.' He said,
«أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ؟ مَا كَلَّمَ اللهُ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلَّا مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ، وَإِنَّه كَلَّمَ أَبَاكَ كِفَاحًا»
، قال علي: الكفاح: المواجهة
«قَالَ: سَلْنِي أُعْطِكَ. قَالَ: أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ أُرَدَّ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا فَأُقْتَلَ فِيكَ ثَانِيَةً، فَقَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: إِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ مِنِّي الْقَوْلُ: إِنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهَا لَا يَرْجِعُونَ. قَالَ: أَيْ رَبِّ فَأَبْلِغْ مَنْ وَرَائِي»
(Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil However, He spoke to your father directly. He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.' He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.' The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life). ' He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those I left behind.') Allah revealed,
وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَتاً
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah...)''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«الشُّهَدَاءُ عَلى بَارِقِ نَهْرٍ بِبَابِ الْجَنَّـةِ، فِي قُبَّةٍ خَضْرَاءَ، يَخْرُجُ عَلَيْهِمْ رِزْقُهُمْ مِنَ الْجَنَّـةِ بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا»
(The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.)
Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best. UImam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him. This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams. Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«نَسَمَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِ طَائِرٌ يَعْلُقُ فِي شَجَرِ الْجَنَّـةِ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَهُ اللهُ إِلى جَسَدِهِ يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُه»
(The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.)
This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.
Allah's statement,
فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ
(They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them) indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah's cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah's cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise. The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, "A part of the Qur'an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.'''
Allah said next,
يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers) 3:171.
Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "They were delighted and pleased because of Allah's promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.''
The Battle of Hamra' Al-Asad
Allah said,
الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ مِن بَعْدِ مَآ أَصَـبَهُمُ الْقَرْحُ
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded) 3:172.
This occurred on the day of Hamra' Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "When the idolators returned towards Makkah after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.' When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad. The idolators said, `Rather, we will meet next year', and the Messenger of Allah went back to Al-Madinah, and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,
الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ مِن بَعْدِ مَآ أَصَـبَهُمُ الْقَرْحُ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّقَوْاْ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.)
Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said to `Urwah about the Ayah;
الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger)
"My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them. After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolators went back, he feared that the idolators might try to come back and he said, `Who would follow them' Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.
As for Allah's statement,
الَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ النَّاسُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ جَمَعُواْ لَكُمْ فَاخْشَوْهُمْ فَزَادَهُمْ إِيمَـناً
(Those unto whom the people said, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' But it (only) increased them in faith) 3:173, it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help,
وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
(and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.'')
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,
حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
("Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.'')
"Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire. Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.' But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.''' Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah 3:173.
This is why Allah said,
فَانْقَلَبُواْ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ لَّمْ يَمْسَسْهُمْ سُوءٌ
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land,
بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ لَّمْ يَمْسَسْهُمْ سُوءٌ
(with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) safe from the wicked plots of their enemies,
وَاتَّبَعُواْ رِضْوَنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَظِيمٍ
(and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)
Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,
فَانْقَلَبُواْ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah,) "The `Grace' was that they were saved. The `Bounty' was that a caravan passed by, and those days were Hajj season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.''
Allah then said,
إِنَّمَا ذَلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ
(It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends,) 3:175 meaning, Shaytan threatens you with his friends and tries to pretend they are powerful and fearsome. Allah said next,
فَلاَ تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِينَ
(so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning, "If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me. Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.'' Similarly, Allah said,
أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبْدَهُ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِالَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ
(Is not Allah Sufficient for His servant Yet they try to frighten you with those besides Him!) 39: 36, until,
قُلْ حَسْبِىَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ يَتَوَكَّـلُ الْمُتَوَكِّلُونَ
(Say: "Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust must put their trust.'') 39:38. Allah said,
فَقَـتِلُواْ أَوْلِيَاءَ الشَّيْطَـنِ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَـنِ كَانَ ضَعِيفاً
(So fight you against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.) 4:76 and
أُوْلَـئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَـنِ أَلاَ إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَـنِ هُمُ الخَـسِرُونَ
(They are the party of Shaytan. Verily, it is the party of Shaytan that will be the losers!) 58:19,
كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لاّغْلِبَنَّ أَنَاْ وَرُسُلِى إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ
(Allah has decreed: "Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.) 58:21 and
وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ
(Verily, Allah will help those who help His (cause).) 22:40 and
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِن تَنصُرُواْ اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ
(O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you) 47:7, and,
إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الاٌّشْهَـدُ - يَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلَهُمُ الْلَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ
(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) 40:51,52
3.169-171 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Please refer to E. N. 155', AI-Baqarah.
It has been explained by the Holy Prophet in the Tradition cited in Musnad-i Ahmad. "One, who enters the Next World with good deeds, is blessed by Allah with such a cheerful and joyful life that he never wishes to return to this world, but the case of a martyr is different. He dces wish that he should again be sent to this world so that he may again enjoy the pleasure, joy and exultation that he felt at the time of laying down his life in the way of Allah."
3.169-170 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
Count not those who were slain in God's way as dead but rather living with their Lord provided for [by Him]. Rejoicing in what God has given them of His bounty and rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind that no fear shall befall them neither shall they grieve. Life in remembrance of the Real-after the lower selves have been annihilated in the good pleasure of the Real-is more perfect than remaining with the blessings of created beings and being veiled from the Real. It is said that the one whose heir is the Living is one who does not disappear and cannot die even if he is killed: Surely bodies have been brought into existence for death so the slaying of a human being in God without doubt is best. And rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind: Those who know that their loved ones are waiting for them while they are in comfort and ease [in the garden] would not take pleasure in living without being with them.