Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Think not) consider not (of those, who are slain in the way of Allah) on the Day of Badr and Uhud, (as dead) like any other dead people. (Nay, they are living) they are like the living. (With their Lord they have provision) they are given gifts.
Count not those who were killed in God's path as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, provided for.
O life of the spirit, what is it with me that I know nothing of my state? The spirit from You fills me, but my heart's blood is empty of You.
O God, our life lies in remembering You, our happiness in finding You, our spirit in recognizing You!
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “The living are three: one lives through the spirit, one lives through knowledge, and one lives through the Real. He who lives through the spirit lives on food and wind. He who lives through knowledge lives on love and remembrance. He who lives through the Real is happy indeed with Him.
“O God, if the body's spirit is deprived of You, it will be a captive corpse, but if someone is killed in Your path hoping for union with You, he will live forever.”
You said, “Don't pass by my street drunk
lest you be killed, for my suitor is jealous.”
Let me say a word, my dear, perhaps I'll be excused“Killed in your street is better than far from your face.”
Indeed, when friends are wounded in the Friend's street, that is a good omen, for gambling away the spirit in the gaming-house of passion is their habit and disposition.
Wealth, gold, things-gamble them away for nothing. When the work reaches your spirit, gamble it away!
Beware, beware! Take care not worry that your spirit will perish in the Friend's path. When the spirit perishes in loyalty to the Friend, that is true eminence. The precondition for your spirit's undertaking friendship's rightful due is its destruction.
Love is intoxication, its craving destruction, its wilting and emaciation beautiful.
He has clothed me with abasement in His loveabasement in love for the likes of Him is eminence.
That tumultuous one of the time, Shiblī, said, “When someone is destroyed in God, God takes his place.” When you are loyal in friendship and gamble away your spirit, you will receive good fortune for free, for you will have the Friend in place of the spirit. If you had a hundred thousand spirits, you should sacrifice them to this union, for in truth that would still be something for nothing.
Why should I not be happy? I paid one soul
for a union worth a thousand sweet spirits!
In this road no one truly passionate rose up like Ḥusayn Manṣūr Ḥallāj. He saw union with the Friend flying like a falcon in the air of solitariness. He tried to hunt it, but his hand could not reach it. It was said in his secret core, “Ḥusayn! If you want your hand to reach it, put your head beneath your feet.” Ḥusayn put his head beneath his feet and rose up to the seventh heaven.
If you come from the field of appetite to the portico of intellect, you'll see yourself like Saturn in the seventh sphere.
If today in this domicile you have a state of loss-
what fine capital and fervor you'll see tomorrow! [DS 705-6]
Take care never to call the spirit-gambling chevaliers who emigrate from this house “dead,” for the quarry of life's jewels is nothing but their heart. The water of life flows only from the spring of their spirit. The Lord of the Worlds says, “Rather, they are alive with their Lord, provided for.” Upon them is the cloak of awe in the shadows of intimacy; sometimes His beauty expands over them, sometimes His majesty inundates them.
At times tasting joy, at times hearing mysteries,
at times gazing from Your majesty on Your beauty.
Maʿrūf Karkhī was washing someone's corpse and the man laughed. Maʿrūf said, “Oh! Life after death?”
He replied, “His friends do not die, rather they are transferred from abode to abode. How could they die, when the exalted Qur'an says, 'rather, they are alive with their Lord, provided for.'” They are happy and delighted, at ease from sorrow and suffering, present with bounty and blessings, in the garden of intimacy on the carpet of generosity, cups of happiness placed in hand again and again. This is why the Lord of the Worlds says,
The following was revealed regarding martyrs: Count not those who were slain (read qutilū or quttilū) in God’s way, that is, for the sake of His religion, as dead, but rather, that they are, living with their Lord, their spirits inside green birds that take wing freely wherever they wish in Paradise, as reported in a hadīth); provided for [by Him], with the fruits of Paradise.
Count not those who were slain in God's way, whether their slaying was the result of the lesser struggle and the expending of the soul for the sake of God's satisfaction, or whether through the greater struggle and the breaking of the soul and the suppression of caprices by means of spiritual discipline: as dead, but rather, living with their Lord, the real life, disengaged from the filth of natural traits, brought near to the Holy Presence, provided for [by Him], with spiritual provisions, namely, gnoses, realities and the irradiation of lights and are provided for in the formal garden in the way that all the living are provided for. For there are levels in the gardens, some of which are spiritual and some formal. In each of the spiritual and the formal there are degrees [merited] in accordance with the works [performed]. The spiritual [levels] are the garden of the Essence and the garden of the attributes and the superiority of certain degrees over other degrees within them is relative to the varying superiority of the degrees of the people of God's power and those of the angelic realm. The formal one is the garden of the acts whose varying degrees of superiority is relative to the varying degrees of superiority of the world of the kingdom that is the upper heavens and the gardens of this world. It is related from the Prophet that he said: 'When your brothers were struck down in [the battle of] Uḥud, God placed their spirits in hollowed-out forms of green birds circling in flight over the rivers of the Garden, eating of its fruits then returning to golden lanterns hung in the shadow of the Throne'. The green birds are an allusion to the celestial bodies, and the lanterns are the stars. In other words, they attach themselves to the luminous celestial bodies because of their purity. The rivers of the Garden are the springs and watering-places of knowledge; its fruits are the states and the gnoses; as for the formal rivers and fruits are commensurate with their spiritual or formal garden. For every thing that exists in this world of foods, drinks, spouses, garments and all pleasures and delights exists in the Hereafter and in the various strata of the heavens [but] more pleasurable and purer than those of this world.
Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, "We asked `Abdullah about this Ayah,
(Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps. Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything' They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise' Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.' Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.)''' There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.) Muslim collected this Hadith
In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.' Allah said, `I will convey the news for you.') Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)
Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak said that these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.
Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad' I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.' He said,
(Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil However, He spoke to your father directly. He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.' He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.' The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life). ' He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those I left behind.') Allah revealed,
(The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.)
Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best. UImam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him. This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams. Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.)
This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.
فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ
(They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them) indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah's cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah's cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise. The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, "A part of the Qur'an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.'''
(They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers) 3:171.
Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "They were delighted and pleased because of Allah's promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.''
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded) 3:172.
This occurred on the day of Hamra' Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "When the idolators returned towards Makkah after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.' When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad. The idolators said, `Rather, we will meet next year', and the Messenger of Allah went back to Al-Madinah, and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.)
Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said to `Urwah about the Ayah;
الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ
(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger)
"My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them. After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolators went back, he feared that the idolators might try to come back and he said, `Who would follow them' Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.
(Those unto whom the people said, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' But it (only) increased them in faith) 3:173, it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help,
وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
(and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.'')
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,
حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ
("Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.'')
"Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire. Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.' But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.''' Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah 3:173.
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land,
(and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)
Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,
فَانْقَلَبُواْ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ
(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah,) "The `Grace' was that they were saved. The `Bounty' was that a caravan passed by, and those days were Hajj season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.''
(so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning, "If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me. Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.'' Similarly, Allah said,
(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) 40:51,52
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Please refer to E. N. 155', AI-Baqarah.
It has been explained by the Holy Prophet in the Tradition cited in Musnad-i Ahmad. "One, who enters the Next World with good deeds, is blessed by Allah with such a cheerful and joyful life that he never wishes to return to this world, but the case of a martyr is different. He dces wish that he should again be sent to this world so that he may again enjoy the pleasure, joy and exultation that he felt at the time of laying down his life in the way of Allah."
Count not those who were slain in God's way as dead but rather living with their Lord provided for [by Him]. Rejoicing in what God has given them of His bounty and rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind that no fear shall befall them neither shall they grieve. Life in remembrance of the Real-after the lower selves have been annihilated in the good pleasure of the Real-is more perfect than remaining with the blessings of created beings and being veiled from the Real. It is said that the one whose heir is the Living is one who does not disappear and cannot die even if he is killed: Surely bodies have been brought into existence for death so the slaying of a human being in God without doubt is best. And rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind: Those who know that their loved ones are waiting for them while they are in comfort and ease [in the garden] would not take pleasure in living without being with them.
(Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead…) [3:169]. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya> Abu Sa'id Isma'il ibn Ahmad al-Khilali> 'Abd Allah ibn Zaydan ibn Yazid al-Bajli> Abu Kurayb> 'Abd Allah ibn Idris> Muhammad ibn Ishaq> Isma'il ibn Abi Umayyah> Abu'l-Zubayr> Sa'id ibn Jubayr> Ibn 'Abbas who reported that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “When your brothers were killed at Uhud, Allah placed their spirits inside green birds which go to the rivers of Paradise and eat of its fruits and reach to lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the wholesomeness of their food, drink and abode, they said: 'Who would inform our brothers, on our behalf, that we are being provided in Paradise, so that they do not shy away from Jihad or shirk away from war?' Allah, glorious and majestic is He, said: 'I will inform them on your behalf', and so He revealed (Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead. Nay, they are living. With their Lord they have provision)”. This was related by al-Hakim in his Sahih from 'Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Ghazi informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hamdan> Hamid ibn Muhammad ibn Shu'ayb al-Balkhi> 'Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah> 'Abd Allah ibn Idris and he related the narration. This was narrated by al-Hakim> 'Ali ibn 'Isa al-Hiri> Musaddid> 'Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah. Abu Bakr al-Harithi informed us> Abu'l-Shaykh al-Hafiz> Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Hadhdha'> 'Ali ibn al-Madini> Musa ibn Ibrahim ibn Bashir ibn al-Fakih al-Ansari> Talhah ibn Khirash> Jabir ibn 'Abd Allah who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, once looked at me and said: 'I see that you are worried, what is wrong?' I said: 'My father was killed and left behind dependents and debts'. He said: 'Shall I inform you: Allah has never spoken to anyone except from behind a veil but has spoken to your father face to face, without a veil or messenger in between, and He said to him: 'My slave, ask and you shall be given'. He said: 'I ask you to take me back to the life of the world so that I get killed again for Your sake'. Allah said to him: 'It has already been decreed that they shall not go back to it'. He said: 'Then inform those whom I have left behind'. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead)”. Abu 'Amr al-Qantari informed me among what he narrated to me in writing> Muhammad ibn al-Husayn> Muhammad ibn Yahya> Ishaq ibn Ibrahim> Waki'> Sufyan> Salim al-Aftas> Sa'id ibn Jubayr who said regarding the verse (Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead. Nay, they are living): “When Hamzah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib and Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr were killed at the Battle of Uhud and saw the good with which they were provided, they said: 'If only our brothers knew what we were given of good so that that their desire for Jihad increases'. And so Allah, exalted is He, said: 'I will inform them on your behalf', and He revealed (Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead. Nay, they are living) up to His saying (… and that Allah wasteth not the wage of the believers) [3:171]”. Said Abu'l-Duha: “This verse was revealed specifically about those who were killed at the Battle of Uhud”. And a group of Qur'anic commentators mentioned that this verse was revealed about the martyrs of the Battle of Bi'r Ma'unah whose story is well known; it was mentioned by Ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar in his book al-Maghazi. Others have mentioned that whenever the families of the martyrs tasted a blessing or sensed happiness, they felt some sorrow, saying: 'We are enjoying blessings and happiness while our fathers, sons and brothers are in the graves', and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse to ease their sorrow and to inform about the state of their killed ones.