The Quran

Commentaries for 3.140

Al Imran (The family of Imran) - آل عمران

3.140 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(If ye have received a blow) if you were harmed on the Day of Uhud, (the (disbelieving) people) the people of Mecca (have received) on the Day of Badr (a blow) harm (the like thereof) like the harm you received on the Day of Uhud: (These are (only) the vicissitudes) the days of the life of this world (which We cause to follow one another for mankind) sometimes the believers have the upper hand over the unbelievers and sometimes it is the unbelievers who have the upper hand over the believers, (to the end that Allah may know) that He may see (those who believe) at the time of jihad (and may choose witnesses from among you) He honours whom He wills among you with martyrdom; (and Allah loveth not wrong-doers) He loves not the idolaters, their religion or their domination.
3.140 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
If a wound touches you, befalls you at Uhud, a like wound (qarh or qurh, which is the exhaustion that results from a wound and the like), already, at Badr, has touched the other people, the disbelievers. Such days We deal out in turn, We dispense them, among mankind, one day for one group, the next day for another, that they might be admonished, and that God may know, through knowledge manifested outwardly, those who believe, who are sincere in their faith from others; and that He may take witnesses from among you, honouring them with martyrdom, and God loves not the evildoers, the disbelievers, that is, He will chastise them, and the blessings He bestows upon them are only a [means of] drawing out [their punishment].
3.140 Kashani - Kashani
[Such] days: [such] events. Any tremendous affair that occurs is called 'a day' or 'days', as [in the expression] where God says And remind them of the Days of God [Q. 14:5]. The explanation of 'that God may know' has already been given to mean the manifestation of knowledge at the level of differentiation that is subsequent to the eventuality of known things; and that He may take witnesses from among you, those who bear witness to the Truth such that they are distracted from their souls. In other words, We deal out [such] events among mankind for various purposes and [on the basis of] many wisdoms which are not mentioned, from [allowing for] the actualisation of what [potential] is [contained] in their preparedness, to action in the way of patience, endurance, the strength of certainty and little concern for the soul, its being mastered and suppressed by the heart and so on; and also for the two reasons mentioned [in the verse] and to deliver the believers from sins and coverings that distance them from God through punishment and trial, when these [days] are against them; and to obliterate the disbelievers, to vanquish them and destroy them when these [days] are in their favour. Between the reasons given [by God] comes a parenthetical: and God loves not the evildoers, in order that it be known that the one who lacks the attribute of faith and witnessing, as well as [the capacity] to examine [his] sins and [lacks] the strength of steadfastness to perfect [his] certainty, but is present at the battle in pursuit of spoils or for some other purpose, such a person is an evildoer and that God does not love him.
3.137-143 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Wisdom Behind the Losses Muslims Suffered During Uhud
Allah states to His believing servants who suffered losses in the battle of Uhud, including seventy dead,
قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ سُنَنٌ
(137... Many similar ways (and mishaps of life) were faced before you), for the previous nations who followed their Prophets before you, they too suffered losses. However, the good end was theirs, and the ultimate defeat was for the disbelievers. This is why Allah said,
فَسِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَانْظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ
(so travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who denied). Allah said next,) (3:137 end...)
هَـذَا بَيَانٌ لِّلنَّاسِ
(138.. This is a plain statement for mankind), meaning, the Qur'an explains the true reality of things and narrates how the previous nations suffered by the hands of their enemies.
وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةٌ
(And a guidance and instruction) for the Qur'an contains the news of the past, and,
(guidance) for your hearts,
وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
(and instruction for the Muttaqin) to discourage committing the prohibited and forbidden matters. Allah comforts the believers by saying,(3:138 end...)
وَلاَ تَهِنُواْ
(139.. (So do not become weak), because of what you suffered,
وَلاَ تَحْزَنُوا وَأَنتُمُ الاٌّعْلَوْنَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
(nor be sad, and you will be triumphant if you are indeed believers), for surely, the ultimate victory and triumph will be yours, O believers.) (3:139 end...)
إِن يَمْسَسْكُمْ قَرْحٌ فَقَدْ مَسَّ الْقَوْمَ قَرْحٌ مِّثْلُهُ
(If a wound has touched you, be sure a similar wound has touched the others) 3:140.
Therefore, the Ayah says, if you suffered injuries and some of you were killed, then your enemies also suffered injuries and fatalities.
وَتِلْكَ الاٌّيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ
(And so are the days, that We give to men by turns), and at times -- out of wisdom -- We allow the enemy to overcome you, although the final good end will be yours.
وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ
(and that Allah may know (test) those who believe,) meaning, "So that We find out who would be patient while fighting the enemies,'' according to Ibn `Abbas.
وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمْ شُهَدَآءَ
(and that He may take martyrs from among you) those who would be killed in Allah's cause and gladly offer their lives seeking His pleasure.
وَاللَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الظَّـلِمِينَوَلِيُمَحِّصَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ
(And Allah likes not the wrongdoers. And that Allah may test those who believe) 3:140,141, by forgiving them their sins if they have any. Otherwise, Allah will raise their grades according to the losses they suffered. Allah's statement,
وَيَمْحَقَ الْكَـفِرِينَ
(and destroy the disbelievers), for it is their conduct that if they gain the upper hand, they transgress and commit aggression. However, this conduct only leads to ultimate destruction, extermination, perishing and dying out...(3:141 end...)
Allah then said,
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّـبِرِينَ
(142.. Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah knows (tests) those of you who will perform Jihad and (also) knows (tests) those who are the patient)
The Ayah asks, do you think that you will enter Paradise without being tested with warfare and hardships Allah said in Surat Al-Baqarah,
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَآءُ وَالضَّرَّآءُ وَزُلْزِلُواْ
(Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken...) 2:214. Allah said,
الم أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَنْ يُتْرَكُوا أَنْ يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ
(Alif Lam Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested) 29:1,2, This is why He said here,
أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّـبِرِينَ
(Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah knows (tests) those of you who will perform Jihad and (also) knows (tests) those who are the patient) 3:142 meaning, you will not earn Paradise until you are tested and thus Allah knows who among you are the ones who struggle and fight in His cause and are patient in the face of the enemy. Allah said,
وَلَقَدْ كُنتُمْ تَمَنَّوْنَ الْمَوْتَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَلْقَوْهُ فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُمُوهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ
(143.. You did indeed wish for death (martyrdom) before you met it. Now you have seen it openly with your own eyes)
The Ayah proclaims, O believers! Before today, you wished that you could meet the enemy and were eager to fight them. What you wished has occurred, so fight them and be patient.
In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا تَتَمَنَّوْا لِقَاءَ الْعَدُوِّ، وَسَلُوا اللهَ الْعَافِيَةَ، فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُوهُمْ فَاصْبِرُوا، وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ الْجَنَّـةَ تَحْتَ ظِلَالِ السُّيُوف»
(Do not wish to encounter the enemy, and ask Allah for your well-being. However, if you do encounter them, then observe patience and know that Paradise is under the shade of swords.)
This is why Allah said here,
فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُمُوهُ
(Now you have seen it): death, you saw it when the swords appeared, the blades were sharpened, the spears crisscrossed and men stood in lines for battle. This part of the Ayah contains a figure of speech that mentions imagining what can be felt but not seen.
3.139-143 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
God is encouraging the Muslims by mentioning the victory in the battle of Badr, saying, "When the disbelievers did not lose heart by the blow at Badr, why should you, the believers, lose heart by the blow at Uhd?"
The original Arabic text may imply either of the two things: "Allah desired to give some of you the honour of martyrdom. " Or it may mean, "He willed to winnow the Believers from the hypocrites so that the true witnesses of the Truth, who may really be worthy of performing the mission that has been assigned to the Muslim Community, may be distinguished from the false ones."
This alludes to those who were so desirous of martyrdom that they had persuaded the Holy Prophet against his wish to go out of Al-Madinah to fight with the enemy.
3.140 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
If a wound touches you a like wound already has touched the other people. Such days We deal out in turn among mankind and that God may know those who believe; and that He may take witnesses from among you and God loves not the evildoers. “If a difficulty has come to you for Our sake they have faced something similar before you. They have been given something like what you have been given.” Those who are patient among them will be victorious fa-man ṣabara minhum ẓafira while those who suffer what comes with annoyance and anger will lose wa man Ḍajira min ḥamli ma laqiya khasira. Days come in turns al-ayām nuwabun and circumstances change wa-l-ḥālāt duwalun and nothing is hidden from the Real.
3.140 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
(If ye have received a blow, the (disbelieving) people have received a blow the like thereof) [3:140]. Said Rashid ibn Sa'd: “When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, returned from Uhud, sad and dejected, women whose husbands and sons were killed went to him crying and slapping their faces. Seeing this, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, exclaimed: 'Is this how Your Messenger is treated?' And Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse (If ye have received a blow, the (disbelieving) people have received a blow the like thereof)”.