Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad)) repentance and punishment are not in your hands whereby you pray against those who were defeated on the Day of Uhud, the archers and others (whether He relent towards them) He says: if Allah chooses to relent towards them and forgive them (or punish them) because of their leaving their positions; (for they are evil-doers) for leaving their positions. It is also said that this was revealed about two tribes, the 'Asabah and Dhakwan, against whom the Prophet (pbuh) prayed when they killed some of his Companions.
When, on the Day of Uhud, the Prophet received a head wound and his front tooth was broken, and he said, ‘How does a people who have drenched the face of their Prophet in blood [expect to] prosper?’, the following was revealed: It is no concern at all of yours, nay, it is God’s concern, so be patient, whether, meaning, until such time as, He relents to them, through [their acceptance of] Islam, or chastises them; for they are indeed evildoers, by [virtue of their] disbelief.
Whether He relents to them, through their submission, to bolster the numbers of the believers, or chastises them, because of their wrongdoing and their persistence in disbelief in order to bring joy to the believers. His words it is no concern at all of yours have fallen between both parts of the coordinated sentence within the narrative as a parenthetical lest the Messenger of God lapse and suppose that he is able to have any effect in these matters, and [lest he] become veiled from the affirmation of the Oneness and remains so, and his witnessings in all oaths are changed. In other words, their affair is not your concern, whatever the situation. You are but a mortal commanded to warn. Your duty is to deliver [the message to them] and their affair is with God.
Allah said "Allah made it not but as a message of good news for you and as an assurance to your hearts". This Ayah means, "Allah sent down angels and told you about their descent to encourage you and to comfort and reassure your hearts. You should know that victory only comes from Allah and that if He willed, He would have defeated your enemy without you having to fight them.'' For instance, Allah said after commanding the believers to fight,
(But if it had been Allah's will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. He will guide them and set right their state. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them) 47:4-6.
(Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills) 28: 56.
Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Allah's statement,
لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الاٌّمْرِ شَىْءٌ
(3:128... Not for you is the decision;), means, "No part of the decision regarding My servants is yours, except what I command you.'' Allah then mentions the rest of the consequences of Jihad,
أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ
(whether He pardons them) concerning the acts of disbelief that they commit, thus delivering them from misguidance to the guidance.
(or punishes them;) in this life and the Hereafter because of their disbelief and errors,
(verily, they are the wrongdoers), and thus, they deserve such a fate.(3:128 end)
Al-Bukhari recorded that, Salim bin `Abdullah said that his father said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying -- when he raised his head from bowing in the second unit of the Fajr prayer -- "O Allah! Curse so-and-so,'' after saying; Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal-Hamd. Thereafter, Allah revealed this Ayah,
لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الاٌّمْرِ شَىْءٌ
(Not for you is the decision;) This was also recorded by An-Nasa'i. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Abdullah said that his father said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Not for you is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardon) them or punishes them; verily, they are the wrongdoers) 3:128.
All these persons were pardoned (after they embraced Islam later on).
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that when Allah's Messenger would supplicate against or for someone, he would do so when he was finished bowing and saying; Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal-Hamd. He would then say, (the Qunut)
(O Allah! Save Al-Walid bin Al-Walid, Salamah bin Hisham, `Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah and the weak and the helpless people among the faithful believers. O Allah! Be hard on the tribe of Mudar and let them suffer from years of famine like that of the time of Yusuf. )
He would say this supplication aloud. He sometimes would supplicate during the Dawn prayer, "O Allah! Curse so-and-so (persons),'' mentioning some Arab tribes. Thereafter, Allah revealed,
لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الاٌّمْرِ شَىْءٌ
(Not for you is the decision.)
Al-Bukhari recorded that Hamid and Thabit said that, Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was injured during the battle of Uhud and said,
«كَيْفَ يُفْلِحُ قَوْمٌ شَجُّوا نَبِيَّهُمْ؟»
(How can a people achieve success after having injured their Prophet)
لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الاٌّمْرِ شَىْءٌ
(Not for you is the decision,) was revealed.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that, the Prophet's front tooth was broken during the battle of Uhud and he also sustained injuries on his forehead until blood dripped on his face. The Prophet said,
(Not for you is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardons) them or punishes them; verily, they are the wrongdoers.) Muslim also collected this Hadith.
Allah then said,
وَللَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ
(3:129... And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the Earth.) 3:129, everything is indeed the property of Allah and all are servants in His Hand.
يَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ
(He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills.) for His is the decision and none can resist His decision. Allah is never asked about what He does, while they will be asked,
وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)(3:129 end...)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
These verses were an answer to the curse which the Holy Prophet called on his enemies: when he was wounded in the battle, he involuntarily invoked evil upon his enemies and said, "How can that community prosper which wounds the Prophet?"
it is no concern at all of yours whether He relents to them or chastises them; for they are indeed evildoers. To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth; He forgives whom He wills and chastises whom He wills. And God is Forgiving Merciful. The deity is the One to whom belongs the command and the prohibition. Because there is no counterpart to Him in divinity [the Prophet] ﷺ has nothing to do with the command and the prohibition. It is said that in what He taught him and told him He divested [the Prophet] of everything else and every share or claim inasmuch as He stated that the command was in no way his. If no part of the command is permitted for the leader of the first and the last how can there be any part of the command for the one whose rank is lower in stationḍ It is said that He takes for Himself alone the secret of His servants in His decree ḥukm saying “I am the One who relents to whom I will among My servants and I punish whom I will. What happens in the end is hidden from you O Muḥammad and you are not aware of My secret regarding them.” It is said that He raised [the Prophet] up at one time to a station in which He said “and you threw not when you threw but God threw” [8:17]. [The Prophet] threw a handful of earth and hit all the faces [of the enemy]. But in another time He said to him “No part of the command is yours” [3:128] and then added in explanation “To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth” [3:129]. Therefore the right to possess is His right to possess mulk the command is His command amr and the decree is His decree ḥukm. He punishes whom He will fa-man shāÌa ʿadhdhabahu and brings closer [to Him] whom He will wa-man shāÌa qarrabahu. He guides whom He will wa-man shāÌa hadāhu and leads astray whom He will wa-man shāÌa aghwāhu.
(It is no concern at all of thee…) [3:128]. Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tamimi informed us> 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ja'far> 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Razi> Sahl ibn 'Uthman al-'Askari> 'Abidah ibn Humayd> Humayd al-Tawil> Anas ibn Malik who said: “On the day of Uhud, one of the molar teeth of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, was broken and his face bled. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said while blood was running down his face: 'How can a people ever succeed when they stain the face of their Prophet with blood while he is calling them to their Lord?' And Allah, exalted is He, revealed (It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad) whether He relent toward them or punish them; for they are evil-doers)”. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Ghazi informed us> Abu 'Amr ibn Hamdan> Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn al-Muthanna> Ishaq ibn Abi Isra'il> 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Muhammad> Ma'mar> al-Zuhri> Salim> his father who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, cursed so and so from amongst the hypocrites at the dawn prayer. But Allah, glorious and majestic is He, revealed (It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad) whether He relent toward them or punish them; for they are evil-doers)”. Narrated by Bukhari from Hayyan from Ibn al-Mubarak from Ma'mar; and also by Muslim from Thabit from Anas. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Farisi informed us> Muhammad ibn 'Isa ibn 'Amrawayh> Ibrahim ibn Muhammad> Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj> al-Qa'nabi> Hammad ibn Salamah> Thabit> Anas who reported that at the Battle of Uhud the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a molar broken and head bashed in such that his blood was spilt. When this happened, he said: “How can a people ever succeed who break his molar and bash in his head when he is calling them to their Lord?” And so Allah, glorious and majestic is He, revealed (It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad)). Abu Ishaq al-Tha'alibi informed us> 'Abd Allah ibn Hamid al-Wazzan> Abu Hamid ibn al-Sharqi> Muhammad ibn Yahya> 'Abd al-Razzaq> Ma'mar> al-Zuhri> Salim> his father who heard the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, say at the dawn prayer upon raising his head from bowing: “O Allah! Praise be to You; O Allah! Curse so and so”, he prayed against the hypocrites. And so Allah, glorious and majestic is He, revealed (It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad)). This was narrated by Bukhari through the channel of al-Zuhri from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, and the full report is better than this. The judge Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Hasan informed us> Abu'l-'Abbas Muhammad ibn Ya'qub> Bahr ibn Nasr> Ibn Wahb> Yunus ibn Yazid> Ibn Shihab> Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab and Abu Salamah ibn 'Abd al-Rahman> Abu Hurayrah who said: “After finishing his recitation, bowing and then standing upright, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to say: 'Allah hears whoever praises Him and our Lord all praise belongs to You', then he would say while still standing in prayer: 'O Allah! Save al-Walid ibn al-Walid, Salamah ibn Hisham, 'Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi'ah and the downtrodden believers. O Allah! Tighten Your grip on Mudar, and make their years like the years of Joseph. O Allah! Curse Lihyan, Ri'l and Dhakwan as well as 'Usayyah, they disobeyed Allah and His Messenger'. But then we heard that he stopped making this supplication when this verse was revealed (It is no concern at all of thee (Muhammad) whether He relent toward them or punish them; for they are evil-doers)”. This was narrated by Bukhari from Musa ibn Isma'il from Ibrahim ibn Sa'd from al-Zuhri.