The Quran

Commentaries for 28.63

Al Qasas (The narrative) - القصص

28.63 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Those concerning whom the Word) of wrath and torment, i.e. the leaders, (will have come true) has been enjoined upon (will say: Our Lord!) O our Lord! (These) lowly people (are they whom we led astray) we led to error. (We led them astray) we misled them from the Truth and guidance (even as we ourselves were astray. We declare our innocence before You) we exonerate ourselves from them: (us they never worshipped) i.e. by our command.
28.63 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Those against whom the Word [of punishment] will have become due, the justified [Word], that they be admitted into the Fire — and these are the leaders of misguidance — they shall say, ‘Our Lord! These are the ones whom we led astray (hā’ūlā’i’lladhīna aghwaynā is both a subject and an adjectival qualification). We led them astray (aghwaynāhum, the predicate thereof) and they went astray, even as we went astray — we did not compel them to [follow] error. We declare our innocence, of them, before You; it was not us that they worshipped’ (mā, ‘not’, is for negation; the direct object [iyyānā, ‘us’] precedes [the verb ya‘budūna, ‘they worshipped’] in order to concord with the end-rhyme of the verses).
28.62-67 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Idolators and Their Partners and the Emnity between Them in the Hereafter
Allah informs of how He will rebuke the idolators on the Day of Resurrection, when He will call them and say:
أَيْنَ شُرَكَآئِىَ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ
("Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert'') meaning, `where are the gods which you used to worship in the world, the idols and rivals Can they help you or save you' This is said in the nature of a rebuke and warning, as in the Ayah,
وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَـكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنَـكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَآءُ لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنكُم مَّا كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ
(And truly, you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you. We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be partners with Allah. Now all relations between you and them have been cut off, and all that you used to claim has vanished from you.) (6:94) His saying:
قَالَ الَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلُ
(Those about whom the Word will have been fulfilled) means the Shayatin and evil Jinn, and those who used to advocate disbelief.
رَبَّنَا هَـؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ أَغْوَيْنَآ أَغْوَيْنَـهُمْ كَمَا غَوَيْنَا تَبَرَّأْنَآ إِلَيْكَ مَا كَانُواْ إِيَّانَا يَعْبُدُونَ
("Our Lord! These are they whom we led astray. We led them astray, as we were astray ourselves. We declare our innocence before You. It was not us they worshipped.'') They will testify against them and say that they led them astray, then they will declare their innocence of their worship. This is like the Ayat:
وَاتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ ءالِهَةً لِّيَكُونُواْ لَهُمْ عِزّاً
كَلاَّ سَيَكْفُرُونَ بِعِبَـدَتِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدّاً
(And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory. Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and become opponents to them.) (19:81-82)
وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَن لاَّ يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَآئِهِمْ غَـفِلُونَ - وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَـفِرِينَ
(And who is more astray than one who calls besides Allah, who will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls to them And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.) (46:5-6). Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, said to his people:
إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَـناً مَّوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً
(You have taken idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other.) (29:25)
إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الاٌّسْبَابُ
(When those who were followed disown those who followed, and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them) until:
وَمَا هُم بِخَـرِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
(And they will never get out of the Fire.) (2:166-167). Allah says:
وَقِيلَ ادْعُواْ شُرَكَآءَكُمْ
(And it will be said (to them): "Call upon your partners,'') meaning, `to save you from the predicament you are in, as you hoped that they would do in this world.'
فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُواْ لَهُمْ وَرَأَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ
(and they will call upon them, but they will give no answer to them, and they will see the torment.) means, they will realize for sure that they are inevitably destined for the Fire. His saying:
لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يَهْتَدُونَ
(If only they had been guided!) means, when they see the punishment with their own eyes, they will wish that they had been among the guided in this world. This is like the Ayah,
وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ نَادُواْ شُرَكَآئِىَ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُواْ لَهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّوْبِقاً - وَرَأَى الْمُجْرِمُونَ النَّارَ فَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُمْ مُّوَاقِعُوهَا وَلَمْ يَجِدُواْ عَنْهَا مَصْرِفًا
(And the Day He will say: "Call those partners of Mine whom you claimed.'' Then they will cry unto them, but they will not answer them, and We shall put a Mawbiq (a barrier) between them. And the criminals, shall see the Fire and apprehend that they have to fall in it. And they will find no way of escape from there.) (18:52-53) Their attitude towards the Messengers on the Day of Resurrection
وَيَوْمَ يُنَـدِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَآ أَجَبْتُمُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
(And the Day He will call to them, and say: "What answer gave you to the Messengers'') The first call will be concerning the issue of Tawhid, which includes evidences of the prophethood -- `What was your response to the Messengers who were sent to you How did you deal with them' This is like the questions which will be asked of a person in his grave: `who is your Lord who is your Prophet and what is your religion' The believer will testify that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, but the disbelievers will say, "Oh, oh, I do not know.'' So he will have no answer on the Day of Resurrection except to remain silent, because whoever is blind in this world (i.e., does not see Allah's signs and believes not in Him), will be blind in the Hereafter, and more astray. Allah says:
فَعَمِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الاٌّنبَـآءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَهُمْ لاَ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ
(Then the news of a good answer will be obscured to them on that Day, and they will not be able to ask one another.) Mujahid said: "The proof will be obscured from them,'' so they will not be able to ask one another for help by virtue of their blood ties. Allah's saying:
فَأَمَّا مَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً
(But as for him who repented, believed, and did righteous deeds,) means, in this world.
فَعَسَى أَن يَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُفْلِحِينَ
(then perhaps he will be among those who are successful.) means, on the Day of Resurrection. And the word; perhaps (`Asa), when used in reference to Allah, may He be exalted, implies that the thing described will inevitably come to pass, and this will undoubtedly happen by the grace and mercy of Allah.
28.62-64 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This discourse is in continuation of the fourth answer, and is linked with the last sentence of the preceding verse. It means to imply this: Those who persist in the evil of shirk and idol-worship and refuse to believe in the Prophet only for the sake of their worldly interests, will meet with such and such evil consequences in the eternal life of the Hereafter. They should, therefore, carefully judge for themselves whether it would be a good bargain if they were to be doomed to such an end, after they had enjoyed fully the provisions and adornments of the short worldly life even if no calamity befell them in the world.
This implies those satans from among jinns and men, who had been set up as associates, of God in the world, whose teachings had been followed in preference to Divine Commandments, and dependence on whom had made the people give up the Right Way and adopt the wrong ways of life. Such persons may not have been called gods and lords as such, but since they were worshiped and obeyed as one should worship and obey only God, they were inevitably made partners in Godhead.
That is, "We did not lead them astray forcibly. We neither deprived them of their powers of seeing and hearing nor of their powers of thinking, nor there ever arose a situation when they wanted to follow the right way but we might have forcibly pulled them to the wrong way. But just as we ourselves had gone astray of our own free will, so they also of their own free will accepted the wrong way when we presented it before them. Therefore, we are not responsible for what they did: we are responsible for our acts and they are responsible for theirs."
There is a subtle point to be noted here. Allah, in fact, will question those who had set up others as associates with Him, but before they make an answer, those who had been set up as associates will speak up. The reason is: When the common polytheists will be questioned thus, their leaders and guides will feel that their doomsday had come, for their followers will certainly blame them for their deviation. Therefore, even before the followers say something in response, the leaders will forestall them and start pleading their innocence.
That is, "They did not serve us but served their own selves alone."
That is, "Invoke them for help. In the world you had relied on them and rejected Our Commandments. So invoke them to come to your rescue here also and save you from the punishment."