Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them) of created beings and marvels (in six Days) of the beginning of creation, the length of each day was 1,000 years of the days that you count presently; the first day was Sunday and the last day Friday, (then He mounted the Throne. The Beneficent! Ask any one informed concerning Him) ask those who possess knowledge about Allah, and they will inform you!
He it is, Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six days, of the [length of the] days of this world, since there was no sun at that point — had He willed He could have created them in an instant, but His not having done so is because He will to teach His creatures to be circumspect — then presided upon the Throne (al-‘arsh in the [classical] language is the seat on which a king sits) the Compassionate One (al-rahmānu substitutes for the subject of [the verb] istawā, ‘presided’) a presiding befitting of Him; so ask, O man, about Him, about the Compassionate One, anyone who is well aware, to inform you about His attributes!
Allah tells us how ignorant the idolators are; instead of worshipping Allah, they worship idols which do not possess the power either to harm or benefit. They do this with no evidence or proof; the only thing that led them to do this was their own whims and desires. So they take these idols as protectors and fight for their sake, and they oppose Allah and His Messenger and the believers for their sake. Similarly Allah says:
وَكَانَ الْكَـفِرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ ظَهِيراً
(and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.) meaning, he is a supporter of Shaytan against the party of Allah, but the party of Allah are the ones who will prevail, as Allah says:
(And they have taken besides Allah gods, hoping that they might be helped. They cannot help them, but they will be brought forward as a troop against those who worshipped them.) (36:74-75) meaning, the gods which they worshipped instead of Allah cannot help them. These ignorant people are troops for the idols and are ready to fight for their sake and protect their sanctuaries, but in the end the victory will be for Allah and His Messenger and the believers, in this world and the Hereafter.
وَكَانَ الْكَـفِرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ ظَهِيراً
(and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord. ) Mujahid said: "He supports and helps the Shaytan in disobedience towards Allah.
The Messenger brings Glad Tidings and Warnings
Then Allah tells His Messenger:
وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ إِلاَّ مُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً
(And We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner.) meaning, a bringer of good news to the believers, a warner to the disbelievers; bringing good news of Paradise to those who obey Allah, and bringing warnings of a dreadful punishment for those who go against the commandments of Allah.
قُلْ مَآ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَجْرٍ
(Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this...'') `for conveying this message and this warning, I do not ask for any reward from your wealth; I am only doing this for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted.'
لِمَن شَآءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ
(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight) (81:28).
(is the First and the Last, the Most High and the Most Near. And He is the All-Knower of everything) (57:3). The Eternal, Ever-Lasting, Ever-Living, Self-Sufficient One, the Lord and Sovereign of all things, the One to Whom you should always turn. Allah is the One in Whom you should put your trust and to Whom you should turn for refuge, He will be sufficient for you and will be your helper and supporter, and will cause you to prevail. As Allah says:
(Say: "He is the Most Gracious, in Him we believe, and in Him we put our trust.'') (67:29)
وَكَفَى بِهِ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِ خَبِيراً
(and sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His servants) means, by His perfect knowledge nothing is hidden from Him nor can anything be hidden from Him, not even a speck of dust's weight.
الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ
(Who created the heavens and the earth...) means, He is the Ever-Living Who never dies, He is the Creator, Sustainer and Sovereign of all things, Who by His might and power created the seven heavens with their vast height and width, and the seven earths with their great depths and density.
(Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the All-Knower.) meaning, find out about Him from one who knows most about Him, and follow him and take him as your example. It is known that there is no one who knows more about Allah than His servant and Messenger Muhammad, the absolute leader of the sons of Adam in this world and the Hereafter, who does not speak of his own desire, but conveys revelation revealed to him. What he says is true, and he is the leader whose decision counts; when there is a dispute, people are obliged to refer to him, and whatever is in accordance with his words and deeds is right, and whatever goes against them should be rejected no matter who says or does it. Allah says:
فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ
((And) if you differ in anything among yourselves...) (4:59).
(And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is Ar-Rahman'') meaning: we do not know Ar-Rahman. They did not like to call Allah by His Name Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), as they objected on the day of (the treaty of) Al-Hudaybiyyah, when the Prophet told the scribe:
«اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم»
(Write: "In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the Most Merciful).'') They said, "We do not know Ar-Rahman or Ar-Rahim. Write what you used to write: `Bismika Allahumma (in Your Name, O Allah).''' So Allah revealed the words:
(Say: "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman, by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names) (17:110). meaning, He is Allah and He is the Most Gracious. And in this Ayah, Allah said:
(And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is the Ar-Rahman'') meaning: we do not know or approve of this Name.
أَنَسْجُدُ لِمَا تَأْمُرُنَا
(Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us) means, "Just because you tell us to''
(And it increases in them only aversion.) As for the believers, they worship Allah Who is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful, and they attribute divinity to Him Alone and prostrate to Him. The scholars, agree that it is allowed and approved for the reader and the listener to prostrate when he reaches this mention of prostration in Surat Al-Furqan, and Allah knows best.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
For explanation of "Throne", see E.N.'s 41, 42 of Al-A'raf, E.N. 4 of Yunus, and E.N. 7 of Hud.
It is difficult to say what exactly is mean by "six days" Here a "day" thay mean a period of time or an ordinary day of this world. For explanation of the "day", see E.N.'s 11 to 15 of Surah Ha Mim Sajdah.