("Were not My Ayat recited to you, and then you used to deny them'') meaning, `I sent Messengers to you, and revealed Books, and cleared the confusion for you, so you have no excuse.' This is like the Ayat:
(Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us, and we were (an) erring people.) meaning, evidence has been established against us, but we were so doomed that we could not follow it, so we went astray and were not guided. Then they will say:
(Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If ever we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be wrongdoers.) meaning, send us back to the world, and if we go back to what we used to do before, then we will indeed be wrongdoers who deserve punishment. This is like the Ayat:
(Now we confess our sins, then is there any way to get out) Until His statement:
فَالْحُكْمُ للَّهِ الْعَلِـىِّ الْكَبِيرِ
(So the judgment is only with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great!'') 40:11-12 meaning, there will be no way out, because you used to associate partners in worship with Allah whereas the believers worshipped Him Alone.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
In the original Text plural number has been used for Allah, which may be for reverence, or may include the angels as well, who will be seizing the criminal soul. The entreaty would be: "O my Lord! send me back!"
It occurs at several places in the Qur'an that each of the criminals, after his death till his entry into Hell, and even after that, will plead again and again: "Lord, send me back to the world: I will no more disobey Thee: I will now do righteous deeds." See Al-An`am (VI):27, 28, Al-A`araf (VII): 53, Ibrahim (X 1 V): 44, 45, Ash-Shu`ara' (XXVI):102, AI-Fatir (XXXV): 37, Az-Zumar (XXXIX): 58, 59, AI-Mu'min (XL): 10-12, and Ash-Shura (XLII): 44 along with the relevant E.N.'s.
That is, "He will never be sent back nor given another opportunity, for in that case the test and vial for which man is sent m this world becomes meaningless." For further explanation, see Al-Baqarah (II): 210 and E. N. 228 thereof, and,E.N.'s 6, 139, 140 of AI-An`am (VI) and E.N. 26 of Yunus (X).
That is, "Now, when he has met his doom, he has nothing more to say than that he should be sent back to the world; so let him say what he likes; he will never be allowed to go back."
"That is, "Now there is a `barrier' between them and the world, which will not allow them to go back to it. Therefore they shall remain in that state up to the Day of Resurrection."
It does not mean that the father will not remain "father" and the son will not remain "son", etc.. It only means that they will not be able to help each other, nor shall they be able to inquire about each other as father and son, for each one will be worried and anxious about his own plight. See also Al-Ma'arij (LXX): 10-14, and `Abasa (LXXXI 34-37).
That is, those whose good deeds will be heavy and will out-weigh their evil deeds.
For the criterion of "success" and "failure" in the Hereafter, please refer to E.N.'s 1 and 50 above.
The word kalih means a face whose skin has been removed so as to expose the jaws. When somebody asked Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud the meaning of kalih, he said, "Haven't you seen the scorched head of a slaughtered animal?"
"....do not speak to Me" "...do not plead your case with Me." According to some traditions, these will be their last words and they shall never be allowed to speak again, but this is contradicted by the Qur'an itself in the succeeding verses. Therefore, it only means this that they will not be able to plead their case again.