The Quran

Commentaries for 22.8

Al Hajj (The pilgrimage) - الحج

22.8 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And among mankind is he who disputeth concerning Allah) argues against Allah's religion and Scripture (without knowledge or guidance) or proof (or a Scripture giving light) or Scripture expositing what he says.
22.8 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
The following was revealed regarding Abū Jahl: And among mankind there are some who dispute about God without [any] knowledge or guidance, [being] with him, or an enlightening Scripture, one containing light, [being] with him,
22.8-10 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Clarifying the State of the Leaders of the Innovators and Those Who lead People astray
Allah has already told us about the ignorant imitators who are led astray:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَـنٍ مَّرِيدٍ
(And among mankind is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge, and follows every rebellious Shaytan.) And here He tells us about those who call others to misguidance, the leaders of disbelief and innovation:
ومِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَـبٍ مُّنِيرٍ
(And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah).) meaning, with no correct rational thought, and no clear transmitted text; what they say is based only on their opinions and whims. Allah's saying,
ثَانِىَ عِطْفِهِ
(Bending his neck in pride,) Ibn `Abbas and others said, "Too proud to follow the truth when he is called to it.'' Mujahid, Qatadah and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam:
ثَانِىَ عِطْفِهِ
(Bending his neck in pride,) means, twisting his neck, i.e., turning away from the truth to which he is called, bending his neck out of pride and arrogance. This is like the Ayat:
وَفِى مُوسَى إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ فَتَوَلَّى بِرُكْنِهِ
(And in Musa, when We sent him to Fir`awn with a manifest authority. But (Fir`awn) turned away along with his hosts) 51:38-39,
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْاْ إِلَى مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُوداً
(And when it is said to them: "Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger,'' you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion.) 4:61,
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْاْ يَسْتَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لَوَّوْاْ رُءُوسَهُمْ وَرَأَيْتَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ وَهُم مُّسْتَكْبِرُونَ
(And when it is said to them: "Come, so that the Messenger of Allah may ask forgiveness from Allah for you,'' they twist their heads, and you would see them turning away their faces in pride.) 63:5, And Luqman said to his son:
وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ
(And turn not your face away from men with pride) 31:18 meaning, do not turn away from them in an arrogant manner. And Allah says:
وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـتُنَا وَلَّى مُسْتَكْبِراً
(And when Our verses are recited to him, he turns away in pride) 31:7.
لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ
(and leading (others) too (far) astray from the path of Allah.) This either refers to those who are stubborn, or it means that the person who does this has been created like this so that he will be one of those who lead others astray from the path of Allah. Then Allah says:
لَهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا خِزْىٌ
(For him there is disgrace in this worldly life,) meaning, humiliation and shame, such as when he is too arrogant to heed the signs of Allah, so Allah will send humiliation upon him in this world and will punish him in this world, before he reaches the Hereafter, because this world is all he cares about and all he knows.
وَنُذِيقُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِذلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاكَ
(and on the Day of Resurrection We shall make him taste the torment of burning. That is because of what your hands have sent forth,) means, this will be said to him by way of rebuke.
وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلَّـمٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ
(and verily, Allah is not unjust to the servants.) This is like the Ayah:
خُذُوهُ فَاعْتِلُوهُ إِلَى سَوَآءِ الْجَحِيمِ - ثُمَّ صُبُّواْ فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ - ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ - إِنَّ هَـذَا مَا كُنتُمْ بِهِ تَمْتَرُونَ
((It will be said: ) "Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire, Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water. Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous! Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!'') 44:47-50
22.8-10 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
That is, they are so stiff-necked, proud, arrogant, obdurate and obstinate that they do not pay any heed to "Admonition".
"Knowledge": that personal information which is gained directly through observation and experience.
"Guidance": that information which is reasoning or through another person who has knowledge.
“Illuminating Book:” Source of information gained from Divine Revelation.
v. 3 mentioned those people who have themselves gone astray, but v. 9 mentions those who have not only deviated from the Right Way themselves but are also bent upon misleading others from it.