Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Those who fled their homes for the cause of Allah) from Mecca to Medina for the sake of obeying Allah, (and then were slain) in the way of Allah by the enemies (or died) while travelling or in settlement, (Allah verily will provide for them a good provision) a good reward in Paradise for those who die among them; and those who remain alive will have spoils of war and wholesome, lawful things. (Lo! Allah, He verily is Best of all who make provision) the Best of all who give sustenance in this worldly life and in the Hereafter.
And those who emigrated in the way of God, that is, in obedience to Him, from [emigrating from] Mecca to Medina, and then were slain, or died, God shall provide them with a good provision, namely, the provision of Paradise. Truly God is the best of providers, the most excellent of givers.
The Great Reward for Those Who migrate in the Cause of Allah
Allah tells us that those who migrate for the sake of Allah, seeking to earn His pleasure and that which is with Him, leaving behind their homelands, families and friends, leaving their countries for the sake of Allah and His Messenger to support His religion, then they are killed, i.e., in Jihad, or they die, i.e., they pass away without being involved in fighting, they will have earned an immense reward. As Allah says:
(And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah) 4:100
لَيَرْزُقَنَّهُمُ اللَّهُ رِزْقاً حَسَناً
(surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them.) means, He will reward them from His bounty and provision in Paradise with that which will bring them joy.
وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُوَ خَيْرُ الرَزِقِينَ
لَيُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ مُّدْخَلاً يَرْضَوْنَهُ
(And verily, it is Allah Who indeed is the Best of those who make provision. Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased,) This means Paradise, as Allah says elsewhere:
(Then, if he be of those brought near (to Allah), rest and provision, and a Garden of Delights.) 56:88-89. Allah tells us that He will grant him rest and provision and a Garden of Delights, as He tells us here:
لَيَرْزُقَنَّهُمُ اللَّهُ رِزْقاً حَسَناً
(surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them.) Then He says:
(Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased, and verily, Allah indeed is All-Knowing,) meaning, He is All-Knowing about those who migrate and strive in Jihad for His sake and who deserve that (reward).
(Most Forbearing,) means, He forgives and overlooks their sins, and He accepts as expiation for their sins, their migration (Hijrah) and their putting their trust in Him. Concerning those who are killed for the sake of Allah, whether they are Muhajirs (migrants) or otherwise, they are alive with their Lord and are being provided for, as Allah says:
(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision) 3:169. There are many Hadiths on this topic, as stated previously. With regard to those who die for the sake of Allah, whether they are emigrants or not. This Ayah and the Sahih Hadiths guarantee that they will be well provided for and that Allah will show them kindness. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Shurahbil bin As-Simt said: "We spent a long time besieging a stronghold in the land of the Romans. Salman Al-Farisi, may Allah be pleased with him, passed by me and said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(Whoever dies guarding the borders of Islam, Allah will give him a reward like that reward (of martyr) and will provide for him and keep him safe from trials. Recite, if you wish: (Those who emigrated in the cause of Allah and after that were killed or died, surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them. And verily, it is Allah Who indeed is the Best of those who make provision. Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased, and verily, Allah indeed is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing))'' He also recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Jahdam Al-Khawlani was with Fadalah bin `Ubayd when they accompanied with two funerals, at (an island of) sea one of whom had been struck by a catapult, and the other had passed away. Fadalah bin `Ubayd sat by the grave of the man who had passed away and someone said to him, "Are you neglecting the martyr and not sitting by his grave'' He said, "I would not mind which of these two graves Allah would resurrect me from, for Allah says:
(Those who emigrated in the cause of Allah and after that were killed or died, surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them.)'' And he recited these two Ayat, then said, "What should I seek, O you servant, if I were to enter an entrance to His pleasure, and be provided good provisions By Allah, I would not mind which of these two graves Allah would resurrect me from.''
ذلِكَ وَمَنْ عَاقَبَ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبَ بِهِ
(That is so. And whoever has retaliated with the like of that which he was made to suffer....) Muqatil bin Hayan and Ibn Jurayj mentioned that this was revealed about a skirmish in which the Companions encountered some of the idolators. The Muslims urged them not to fight during the Sacred Months, but the idolators insisted on fighting and initiated the aggression. So the Muslims fought them and Allah granted them victory.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ
(Verily, Allah indeed is Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The epithet "barren" has been applied to the "day" in its metaphorical and not literal sense. :A "day" is barren if all the plans, hopes and devices remain unproductive in it, or it does not bring forth its night. For instance, the days on which the people of Prophet Noah, the tribes of `Ad and Thamud, the people of Lot and of Midian met with their destruction by scourge from Allah, were barren days in this sense, because those days did not bring forth any "tomorrow" for them, and no device of theirs could avert their doom.
As Allah is All-Knowing, He knows well those who left their homes for His sake and what reward they deserve. He is Clement, and forgives minor errors and weaknesses of the people; therefore these things will not hinder Him from rewarding the Believers for their services and sacrifices.
The preceding verses referred to those persecuted people who could not retaliate and here 'the reference is to those victims of persecution who could fight back.
From this verse, Imam Shafi`i has concluded that "retaliation" will be effected in the way as life was taken in the original act. If a person is killed by immersion in water, the killer also should be put to death by immersion in water; or if a person is.burnt to death, the killer also will be burnt to death. The Hanafites dispute this. According to them, retaliation against a murderer will be incurred in one and the same established way no matter how life was taken by the culprit in the original act.
This verse (60) may imply two things:
(1) Allah forgives that "killing" which is done in self-defense, though killing of people is not a good thing in itself. (2) As Allah, Whose slaves the Believers are, is Forgiving and Forbearing, they should also forgive and forbear as far as possible. Though they have the right of retaliation, they should not resort to carnage and massacre.