Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And those who disbelieve) in Muhammad (pbuh) and in the Qur'an, i.e. al-Walid Ibn al-Mughirah and his host (will not cease to be in doubt thereof) in doubt of the Qur'an, but wait, O Muhammad, (until the Hour) the Last Hour (come upon them unawares) all of a sudden, (or there come unto them the doom of a disastrous day) in which there is no comfort, this is the Day of Badr.
And those who disbelieve will not cease to be in doubt of it, that is, the Qur’ān — because of what Satan had cast onto the tongue of the Prophet (s) and what had thereafter been nullified — until the Hour comes upon them unawares, that is, the Hour of their death or [of] resurrection, [comes upon them] suddenly, or there come upon them the chastisement of a day of desolation (‘aqīm), namely, the day of Badr, which held nothing of good for disbelievers, much like a sterile wind (rīh ‘aqīm) that bears no good; or it means, the Day of Resurrection, [referred to as ‘desolate’] because thereafter there will be no more night.
The Disbelievers will remain in Doubt and Confusion
Allah tells us that the disbelievers will remain in doubt concerning this Qur'an. This was the view of Ibn Jurayj and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.
حَتَّى تَأْتِيَهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً
(until the Hour comes suddenly upon them,) Mujahid said: "By surprise.'' Qatadah said:
(suddenly) means, the command of Allah will catch the people unaware. Allah never seizes a people except when they are intoxicated with pride, enjoying a life of luxury, and they think that the punishment will never come upon them, but Allah does not punish anyone except the evildoers.
أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابُ يَوْمٍ عَقِيمٍ
(or there comes to them the torment of Yawm `Aqim.) Mujahid said, "Ubay bin Ka`b said: `Yawm `Aqim means the day of Badr.''' `Ikrimah and Mujahid said: "Yawm `Aqim means the Day of Resurrection, following which there will be no night.'' This was also the view of Ad-Dahhak and Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Allah says:
الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ للَّهِ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ
(The sovereignty on that Day will be that of Allah. He will judge between them.) This is like the Ayat:
(Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) 40:60
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The epithet "barren" has been applied to the "day" in its metaphorical and not literal sense. :A "day" is barren if all the plans, hopes and devices remain unproductive in it, or it does not bring forth its night. For instance, the days on which the people of Prophet Noah, the tribes of `Ad and Thamud, the people of Lot and of Midian met with their destruction by scourge from Allah, were barren days in this sense, because those days did not bring forth any "tomorrow" for them, and no device of theirs could avert their doom.
As Allah is All-Knowing, He knows well those who left their homes for His sake and what reward they deserve. He is Clement, and forgives minor errors and weaknesses of the people; therefore these things will not hinder Him from rewarding the Believers for their services and sacrifices.
The preceding verses referred to those persecuted people who could not retaliate and here 'the reference is to those victims of persecution who could fight back.
From this verse, Imam Shafi`i has concluded that "retaliation" will be effected in the way as life was taken in the original act. If a person is killed by immersion in water, the killer also should be put to death by immersion in water; or if a person is.burnt to death, the killer also will be burnt to death. The Hanafites dispute this. According to them, retaliation against a murderer will be incurred in one and the same established way no matter how life was taken by the culprit in the original act.
This verse (60) may imply two things:
(1) Allah forgives that "killing" which is done in self-defense, though killing of people is not a good thing in itself. (2) As Allah, Whose slaves the Believers are, is Forgiving and Forbearing, they should also forgive and forbear as far as possible. Though they have the right of retaliation, they should not resort to carnage and massacre.