Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Those who, if We give them power in the land) We make them dwell in the land of Mecca, (establish worship) perform the five daily prayers (and pay the poor-due) from their wealth (and enjoin kindness) and enjoin Allah's divine Oneness and the following of Muhammad (pbuh) (and forbid iniquity) and forbid disbelief, idolatry and disobedience of the Messenger. (And Allah's is the sequel of events) the consequence of all matters will be Allah's in the Hereafter.
those who, if We empower them in the land, by granting them victory over their enemies, maintain the prayer, and pay the alms, and enjoin decency and forbid indecency (this [last] is the response to the conditional clause, which together with the response constitute a relative clause of the relative noun [‘those who’]; hum, ‘they [are]’, may be taken as the implied subject before this). And with God rests the outcome of all matters, in other words, to Him these [matters] return in the Hereafter.
(Those who, if We give them power in the land, (they) establish the Salah, enforce the Zakah, and they enjoin the good and forbid the evil.) was revealed concerning us, for we had been expelled from our homes unjustly only because we said: `Our Lord is Allah.' Then we were given power in the land, so we established regular prayer, paid the Zakah, enjoined what is good and forbade what is evil, and with Allah rests the end of (all) matters. This is about my companions and I.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "They were the Companions of Muhammad.'' As-Sabah bin Suwadah Al-Kindi said, "I heard `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz give a speech and say:
الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَّكَّنَّـهُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ
(Those who, if We give them power in the land....) Then he said, "This is not obligatory only for those who are in authority, it also applies to those who are governed by them. Shall I not tell you what you can expect from your governor, and what duties those who are ruled owe to him Your rights over your governor are that he should check on you with regard to your duties towards Allah and restore the rights that you have over one another, and that he should guide you to the straight path as much as possible. Your duties towards him are that you should obey him without cheating and without resentment, and you should obey him both in secret and openly.'' `Atiyah Al-`Awfi said, "This Ayah is like the Ayah:
(Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the land) 24:55.
وَلِلَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٍّمُورِ
(And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters.) This is like the Ayah:
(And the good end is for those who have Taqwa) 28:83. Zayd bin Aslam said:
وَلِلَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٍّمُورِ
(And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters.) "And with Allah will be the reward for what they did.''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
From here the address for the first time prepares the Muslims for Jihad. In order to understand this, we should keep in view the preceding portion (vv. 19-24) in which the ideological conflict between the two parties (Believers and disbelievers) and the result thereof have been described. This naturally serves as a prelude to the armed conflict between the two parties. That is why in vv. 26-37 the immediate causes which necessitated war have been stated to serve as an introduction and justification for war with the disbelievers of Makkah.
After the migration to al-Madinah, when the first Hajj season approached, it naturally brought along with it anguish and anger both for the Muhajirs and the Ansar, who had been debarred froth visiting Makkah and performing Hajj, That is why, in this passage (vv.,26-37) the rituals and the objects of Hajj have been described to bring home to the disbelievers that they had no right to debar anyone from Hajj. On the other hand, the Muslims are being prepared to fight not with the intention of wreaking vengeance but for the sake of reform. At the same time sacrifice on the occasion of Hajj has been prescribed as a permanent rite to enable them (and the Muslims of the whole world) to commemorate Hajj and the rites connected with it, so that they might refrain from wreaking vengeance on the people of Makkah for the persecution to which they had been subjected. They have, therefore, been enjoined to fight to bring about better conditions and not to take. revenge on their persecutors.
The Arabic word mudafi at implies two things:
(1) to fight with the enemy to ward off his aggressive attack;
(2) to fight with the enemy not just once but whenever the need arises. Allah has assured the Believers that He will defend them against the enemy every tithe there is a conflict between Islam and kufr. This is to encourage the Believers that they will not be left alone in their defence, but Allah Himself will be a party with them and will help them to frustrate the cunning designs of the enemy and to ward off their attacks. Indeed this verse is a great encouragement for the Believers, for it imbues their hearts with spirit and strength which nothing else can.
Allah becomes a party with the Believers because they are justified in waging war against the disbelievers who are treacherous and ungrateful to Allah in spite of His marry blessings and favors to them.
This (v. 39) is the first verse of the Qur'an in which permission to tight was given in the month of Zil-Hajj in the first year after Hijrah according to our research. Then the command to fight was given in vv. 190, 191, 193, 216 and 244 of Chapter II (Al-Baqarah) in Rajab or Sha`ban of A.H. 2.
".....and Allah is certainly able to help them": this assurance was urgently needed by the persecuted Muslims whose fighting strength at that time was very meager, not even a thousand including all the migrants and the Muslims of al-Madinah. On the other hand, the fighting strength of the Quraish by themselves was much greater. Besides, they had all the other mushrik clans of Arabia at their back and were joined later by the Jews as well. Therefore, this assurance was most opportune and the challenge to the disbelievers was very significant, for it meant to say that they were not fighting against a small number of the Muslims but against Allah. Therefore, "You are. welcome to fight if you dare".
The mention of their expulsion from their homes in v. 40 is a clear proof that this portion of Surah al-Hajj was revealed at al-Madinah.
In order to have an idea of the severe persecution of the Muslims, a few instances of this are cited.
(1) Hadrat Suhaib Rumi was deprived of everything, when he was about to migrate to al-Madinah. When he reached there, he had nothing with him except the clothes he was wearing. Though he had earned all that through his own labors he was deprived of everything by the disbelievers of Makkah.
(2) When Hadrat Abu Salmah was about to leave Makkah with his wife and a suckling child, his in-laws forcibly separated his wife from him, and then the people of his own family tore away the child from them. Thus the poor woman had to pass one whole year in sorrow and grief. After a year, she secured the child somehow and journeyed from Makkah to al-Madinah with it all alone on a dangerous route.
(3) `Ayyash bin Rabi`ah was a half brother of Abu Jahl: When he migrated to al Madinah, he was followed by Abu Jahl and another brother of his, and they told him the lie: "Your mother has taken the oath that she will not move from the sun to the shade nor comb her hair until she should see you (`Ayyash) You should therefore go back with us to Makkah,' show her your face and then come back". He was taken in by this trick. When they were journeying back the two brothers made him a prisoner, took him to Makkah with his hands and feet tied, and proclaimed, "O people of Makkah, this is how these lads should be treated and set right". He remained in that state for a long time and was at last rescued by a brave Muslim.
Saumah (pl. Swami), Biyah and Salawat in the original Text are the places of worship of the monks who have left the world, the Christians and the Jews respectively. Salawat was Salauta in Aramaic, which might be the origin of the English words salute and salutation.
In this sentence, a Divine principle has been stated:
"Allah does not let a group of people or a community have authority for ever. Every now and then He repels one group by means of another".
If this had not been the case, the permanent dominator would have created chaos not only in the political and economic spheres, but would have encroached upon the places of worship as well. This "principle" has also been stated in v. 251 of Chapter II (Al-Baqarah).
Those "who help Allah" are the people who invite mankind to Tauhid and exert their utmost to establish the "True Faith" and righteousness. For further explanation see E.N. 50 of Chapter III (AI-i-`Imran).
".......if We give them power...... evil": In this one sentence, the real aim of the Islamic State and the characteristics of those who conduct its affairs have been stated concisely but comprehensively. Those who help Allah and deserve His succor behave righteously, establish Salat, make arrangements for the collection of Zakat and use their power and authority to propagate good and eradicate evil.
That is, "It is Allah Who decides whom to give power in the land and when". This is meant to remove the misunderstanding of the proud and arrogant people who think that the destiny of the land and its dwellers is in their hands, and there is none to depose them from power. But Allah dethrones the most haughty ruler in supernatural ways and gives power to the most humble in order to show that He is All-Powerful, All-Mighty. "