Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And the camels!) and bovines (We have appointed them) We have made them subservient to you (among the ceremonies of Allah) among the rites of the pilgrimage so that you immolate them. (Therein) in these sacrifices (ye have much good) you have much reward. (So mention the name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines) when you immolate them, and let them be free of defects; it is also said that this means: they should have their left foot tied up such that they stand on three. (Then when their flanks fall (dead)) after immolating them, (eat thereof) of the meat of these sacrifices (and feed the beggar) who is content with little (and the supplicant) the one who faces you but does not beg of you. (Thus have We made them subject unto you, that haply ye may give thanks) that you may give thanks to His bounty and dispensation.
And [as for] the sacrificial camels (al-budn, plural of badana, which are ‘camels’) — We have appointed them for you as one of God’s sacraments, the [ritual] ceremonies of His religion. There is good for you in them, benefit for you in this world, as already mentioned, and a reward in the Hereafter. So mention God’s Name over them, at the point of immolating them, when they are lined up, standing on three legs, with the left foreleg hobbled. Then, when their flanks have collapsed, fallen to the ground after immolation — which is the time when one may eat of them — eat of them, if you wish, and feed the [self-contained] beggar (al-qāni‘, [a beggar] who is content with what he is given, neither asking nor approaching [people]) and the suppliant (al-mu‘tarr, [a beggar] who asks [for charity] or approaches [people for that purpose]). So, that is, similar to such a disposal, We have disposed them for you, that it may be immolated or ridden — for otherwise it would not have been possible — that perhaps you might be thankful, for My graces to you.
The Command to slaughter the Budn (Sacrificial Camel)
Here Allah reminds His servants of the blessing which He has bestowed on His servants, by creating the Budn for them and making them one of His symbols. For He has decreed that they should be brought to His Sacred House; indeed, they are the best of that which may be offered as a sacrifice to Allah, as He says:
(Violate not the sanctity of the Sha`a'ir of Allah, nor of the Sacred Month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlanded people or animals, and others, nor the people coming to the Sacred House)5:2
(And the Budn, We have made them for you as among the symbols of Allah,) Ibn Jurayj said: "Ata' commented on this Ayah, `Cattle and camels.''' A similar view was also reported from Ibn `Umar, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Mujahid said: "Al-Budn means camels.'' According to Muslim, Jabir bin `Abdullah and others said, "The Messenger of Allah commanded us to share in offering the sacrifice, a Budn (camel) for seven people, and one cow for seven people.''
لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ
(wherein you have much good. ) means, reward in the Hereafter.
فَاذْكُرُواْ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَآفَّ
(So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice).) It was reported from Al-Muttalib bin `Abdullah bin Hantab that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "I prayed with the Messenger of Allah on `Id Al-Adha. When he finished, he brought a ram and slaughtered it, saying,
(Bismillah, and Allahu Akbar. O Allah, this is on behalf of me and anyone of my Ummah who has not offered a sacrifice.) This was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi. Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded from Yazid bin Abi Habib from Ibn `Abbas that Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah sacrificed two rams on the day of `Id, and when he lay them down to sacrifice them, he said:
(I turn my face to the One Who created the heavens and the earth, being true and sincere in faith submitting myself to Him Alone, and I am not of the idolators. Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists for, with no partner or associate for Him. Thus am I commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims. O Allah, from You and to You, on behalf of Muhammad and his Ummah.) Then he said, `Bismillah' and `Allahu Akbar' and slaughtered them.'' It was reported from `Ali bin Al-Husayn from Abu Rafi` that when the Messenger of Allah wanted to offer a sacrifice, he would buy two fat, horned, fine rams. When he had prayed and addressed the people, he would bring one of them to where he was standing in the prayer place, and would sacrifice it himself with a knife, then he would say:
(O Allah, this is on behalf of all of my Ummah, whoever bears witness of Tawhid of You and bears witness that I have conveyed.) Then he would bring the other ram and sacrifice it himself, and say,
«هَذَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّد»
(This is on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.) He would give them to the poor and he and his family would eat from it as well. This was recorded by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Zabiyan from Ibn `Abbas,
فَاذْكُرُواْ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَآفَّ
(So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice). ) "When they are standing on three legs, with the left foreleg tied up. He says Bismillah and Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illallah, Allahumma Minka wa Laka (In the Name of Allah and Allah is Most Great; there is no God but Allah. O Allah, from You and to You).'' In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that Ibn `Umar came to a man who had made his camel kneel down in order to sacrifice it. He said, "Make it stand up fettered, (this is) the Sunnah of Abu Al-Qasim (i.e. the Prophet Muhammad ).''
فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا
(Then, when they are down on their sides,) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, "This means, when it has fallen to the ground.'' This was narrated from Ibn `Abbas, and a similar view was narrated from Muqatil bin Hayyan. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,
فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا
(Then, when they are down on their sides,) "Meaning, when they have died.'' This is what was meant by the comment of Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid, for it is not permitted to eat from the sacrifice when it has been slaughtered until it has died and its movements have ceased. It was reported in a Marfu` Hadith:
«لَا تُعَجِّلُوا النُّفُوسَ أَنْ تَزْهَق»
(Do not rush until you are sure that the animal is dead. ) Ath-Thawri narrated in his Jami` that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that, and he supported it with the Hadith of Shaddad bin `Aws in Sahih Muslim:
(Allah has prescribed proficiency in all things. If you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters.) It was recorded that Abu Waqid Al-Laythi said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(eat thereof, and feed Qani` and the Mu`tarr...) This is a command which implies that this is permissible. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Qani` is the one who is content with what he is given and he stays in his house, and the Mu`tarr is the one who comes to you and rubs shoulders with you so that you will give him some meat, but he does not ask for it. '' This was also the view of Mujahid and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Qani` is the one who is too proud to ask, and Mu`tarr is the one who does ask.'' This was also the view of Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and Mujahid, according to one report narrated from him. And the opposite was also suggested. This Ayah has been quoted as evidence by those scholars who said that the sacrifice should be divided into three: a third for the one who offers the sacrifice to eat from, a third to be given as gifts to his friends, and a third to be given in charity to the poor, because Allah says:
(eat thereof, and feed the poor who does not ask, and the beggar who asks.) But there is no evidence in this Ayah for this view. According to a Sahih Hadith, the Messenger of Allah said to the people: c
(The first thing that we should do on this day of ours (`Id) is to pray, then we return and offer the sacrifice. Whoever does that will have followed our Sunnah. Whoever slaughters his animal before the prayer, this is just meat which he has brought for his family, it is not a sacrifice at all.) This was recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). And in Sahih Muslim, it is mentioned that one is not to offer the sacrifice until the Imam (leader) has offered his. It is prescribed to offer the sacrifice on the day of Nahr and the following three days of Tashriq, because of the Hadith of Jubayr bin Mut`im who said that the Messenger of Allah said:
«أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ كُلُّهَا ذَبْح»
(The days of Tashriq are all (for) sacrifice.) This was recorded by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban.
(Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful.) means, for this reason.
(Thus have We made them subject to you) means, `We have subjugated them to you, i.e., We have made them submissive towards you, so that if you wish you can ride them, or if you wish you can milk them, or if you wish you can slaughter them,' as Allah says:
(Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Seven persons can become partners in the sacrifice of one camel and likewise in the sacrifice of one cow and the like, as enjoined by the Holy Prophet in a Tradition reported by Jabir bin `Abdullah in the Collection of Hadith by Muslim.
That is, "You should sacrifice animals because you get many benefits front them to show your gratitude to Allah, the Giver, and also to acknowledge His Supremacy and Sovereignty".
It should be noted that a camel is sacrificed while it is standing. This was enjoined by the Holy Prophet and is supported by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, I)ahhak, etc. Muslim and Bukhar have reported a Tradition from Hadrat Ibn Umar, who saw a man slaughtering his camel in the sitting position. He said to him, "Tie one foot of your camel and make it stand, because that is the way of Abu Qasim (peace be upon him)". According to a tradition reported by Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah, in Abu Dawud, the Holy Prophet and his Companions would tie a left foot of the camel and would make it stand on three feet; then they would slaughter it. The same is implied by the subsequent sentence: "...and after their backs lie still on the ground.......", i.e. when they fall down to the ground after enough of their blood has run out.
"Mention the name of Allah over them" implies that animals should be slaughtered by pronouncing the name of Allah over them, because without that their flesh would be unlawful to eat. This shows that in the Islamic Law there is no conception of slaughtering an animal without pronouncing the name of Allah over it. According to Traditions, there are different wordings for pronouncing the name of Allah over the animals at the time of their slaughter. Some of these are:
(I) Bismillahi Allahu Akbar; Allahumma minks wa laka: "In the name of Allah, Allah is most Great! O Allah, this is Thine and is presented to Thee".
(2) Allahu Akbar- La ilaha ill-Allahu; Allahumma minks wa laka: "Allah is most Great: There is no god but Allah: O Allah, this is Thine and is presented to Thee".
(3) Inni wajjahtu wajhiya lillazi fatar-as-sama wati wal-arda, hanif-an-wa ma ana min-al-mushrikin. Inns Salati wa nusuki wa mahyaya wa mamati lillahi Rabb-il- 'alamin. La sharika lahu wa bi-zalika umirtu wa ana min-al-Muslimin. A llahumma minks wa laka. "I have turned my face sincerely towards the Being Who created the heavens and the earth, and I am not from among the idolatrous people. My Salat and my rites of worship and my life and my death are all for Allah, the Lord of the universe, Who has no partner with Him. This is what I have been enjoined and I am the first to surrender to Him. O Allah! This is Thine, and is presented to Thee."
".......lie still on the ground......." means till they die completely, for the Holy Prophet prohibited to cut off a piece of flesh, if there is still any sign of life in the slaughtered animal; if this is done, the piece of flesh would be unlawful.
This is another reason why animals should be sacrificed: "They should be sacrificed as a mark of gratitude to Allah Who has subjected them to you".