The Quran

Commentaries for 22.28

Al Hajj (The pilgrimage) - الحج

22.28 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(That they may witness things that are of benefit to them) the benefits of this worldly life and the benefits of the Hereafter; the benefit of the Hereafter through supplications and worship and the benefit of this worldly life through trade and making profit (and mention the name of Allah) and so that they mention the name of Allah (on appointed days) on well known days, the days of tashriq (over the beast of cattle that He hath bestowed upon them) the beast of cattle offered for immolation. (Then eat thereof) eat from the beasts of cattle you immolated (and feed therewith the poor unfortunate).
22.28 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
that they may witness, that they may be present before, things that are of benefit to them, in this world, such as commerce, or [of benefit] in the Hereafter, or in both — all [of which are [valid alternative] opinions — and mention God’s Name on appointed days, namely, the ten days of Dhū’l-Hijja, or the Day of ‘Arafa, or from the Day of Immolation up to the last days of tashrīq — all of which are [valid alternative] opinions — over the livestock which He has provided them, such as the camels, cows and sheep immolated on the Day of the ‘Īd, and any subsequent offerings or sacrifices. “So eat thereof, if it be recommended, and feed the wretched poor”, that is, the one in dire poverty.
22.28-29 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Reward for avoiding Sin
Allah says: `This is what We have commanded you to do in the rituals (of Hajj), and this is the great reward that the person who does that will gain.'
وَمَن يُعَظِّمْ حُرُمَـتِ اللَّهِ
(whoever honors the sacred things of Allah,) means, whoever avoids disobeying Him and does not transgress that which is sacred, and regards committing sin as a very serious matter,
فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ
(then that is better for him with his Lord.) means, he will attain much good and a great reward for doing that. Just as the one who does acts of obedience will earn a great reward, so too, the one who avoids sin will earn a great reward.
Cattle are Lawful
وَأُحِلَّتْ لَكُمُ الاٌّنْعَـمُ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ
(The cattle are lawful to you, except those (that will be) mentioned to you.) means, `We have made permissible for you all the An`am (cattle etc.),' and Allah has not instituted things like Bahirah or a Sa'ibah or a Wasilah or a Ham.
إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ
(except those mentioned to you.) the prohibition of Al-Maytah, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering (that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols) and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns -- and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal -- unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) - and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub. This was the view of Ibn Jarir, who recorded it from Qatadah.
The Command to shun Shirk and Lying
فَاجْتَنِبُواْ الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الاٌّوْثَـنِ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ قَوْلَ الزُّورِ
(So shun the Rijis of the idols, and shun false speech.) From this it is clear what Ar-Rijs means, i.e., avoid the abomination, which means idols. Shirk is mentioned in conjunction with false speech, as in the Ayah:
قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْىَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُواْ بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَـناً وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
(Say: "(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge''.) 7:33 This includes bearing false witness. In the Two Sahihs it was reported from Abu Bakrah that the Messenger of Allah said:
«أَلَا أُنَبِّــئُكُمْ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ؟»
(Shall I not tell you about the worst of major sins) We said, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.'' He said:
«الْإِشْرَاكُ بِاللهِ وَعُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ (Associating others with Allah, disobeying one's parents.) He was reclining, then he sat up and said: أَلَا وَقَوْلُ الزُّورِ،أَلَا وَشَهَادَةُ الزُّور»
(and indeed giving false statements, and indeed bearing false witness...) and he kept on repeating it until we wished that he would stop.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Khuraym bin Fatik Al-Asadi said, "The Messenger of Allah prayed As-Subh (Al-Fajr), and when he had finished, he stood up and said:
«عَدَلَتْ شَهَادَةُ الزُّورِ الْإِشْرَاكَ بِاللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل»
(Bearing false witness is on a par with the association of others with Allah.) Then he recited this Ayah:
فَاجْتَنِبُواْ الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الاٌّوْثَـنِ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ قَوْلَ الزُّورِحُنَفَآءَ للَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ
(So shun the Rijs of the idols, and shun lying speech. Hunafa' Lillah, not associating partners unto Him;)
حُنَفَآءَ للَّهِ
(Hunafa' Lillah) means, sincerely submitting to Him Alone, shunning falsehood and seeking the truth. Allah says:
غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ
(not associating partners unto Him;) Then Allah gives a likeness of the idolator in his misguidance and being doomed and being far away from true guidance, and says:
وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ
(and whoever assigns partners to Allah, it is as if he had fallen from the sky,) meaning,
فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ
(the birds caught him in midair,)
أَوْ تَهْوِى بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِى مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ
(or the wind had thrown him to a far off place.) means, remote and desolate, dangerous for anyone who lands there. Hence it says in the Hadith of Al-Bara':
«إِنَّ الْكَافِرَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُ مَلَائِكَةُ الْمَوْتِ وَصَعِدُوا بِرُوحِهِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ، فَلَا تُفْتَحُ لَهُ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ بَلْ تُطْرَحُ رُوحُهُ طَرْحًا مِنْ هُنَاك»
(When the angels of death take the soul of the disbeliever in death, they take his soul up to the heaven, but the gates of heaven are not opened for him; on the contrary, his soul is thrown down from there.) Then he recited this Ayah. The Hadith has already been quoted in our explanation of Surah Ibrahim. Allah gives another parable of the idolators in Surat Al-An`am, where He says:
قُلْ أَنَدْعُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَنفَعُنَا وَلاَ يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَى أَعْقَـبِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ كَالَّذِى اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَـطِينُ فِى الاٌّرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَـبٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى
(Say: "Shall we invoke others besides Allah, that can do us neither good nor can harm us, and shall we turn back on our heels after Allah has guided us -- like one whom the Shayaلtin have made to go astray in the land in confusion, his companions calling him to guidance (saying): `Come to us.''' Say: "Verily, Allah's guidance is the only guidance.'') 6:71
22.26-29 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Some commentators opine that the address to Prophet Abraham ends with v. 26 and say that the Command contained in v. 27 was addressed to the Holy Prophet; but this opinion does not fit in with the context. For it is obvious that this Command also was addressed to Prophet Abraham when he had built the Ka`bah. Moreover, the command implies that the House of Allah had been built for the worship of One Allah and there was general permission from the very first day for all worshipers to visit it for performing Hajj.
The expression "lean camels" has been deliberately used to depict the picture of the camels of pilgrims coming from far-off places to perform Hajj.
In my opinion the address to Prophet Abraham comes to an end with v. 27 and vv. 28-29 have been added to emphasize and give further instructions for the performance of Hajj. We have based this opinion on the use of the epithet "Ancient House of the Ka`bah". It could not have been used at the time when Prophet Abraham built it. (For further details about the construction of the Ka`bah see II: 125-129, III: 96, 97 and XIV: 35-41).
"The benefits" include both religious and worldly benefits. It was due mainly to the Ka`bah that during the period of 2500 years between the times of Prophet Abraham and the Holy Prophet, the Arabs, in spite of their tribal life, remained attached to one central place and continued to visit it from all parts of Arabia for performing Hajj year after year. This in turn preserved their language, their culture and their Arab identity. Then during the course of the year they were afforded at least four months of perfect peace when anybody and everybody could safely travel alone or in trade caravans; thus the ritual of Hajj was directly beneficial to economic life of the country as well. For details see III: 97 and E.N's 80, 81 thereof, and V: 97 and E.N. 113 thereof.
"The cattle" here imply the camel, cow, sheep and goat as has been clearly mentioned in VI:142-144."... they should mention the name of Allah over the cattle" implies that they should slaughter the cattle for Allah's. sake and in His name, as is clear from the subsequent sentences. Allah's name should be recited at the time the cattle are slaughtered to show that the Muslims are to slaughter and sacrifice animals in Allah's name alone so as to distinguish them from the disbelievers who slaughtered animals without mentioning Allah's name or by mentioning other names than that of Allah.
As regards "the known appointed days", there is a difference of opinion as to their exact identity. Some of the opinions as to what the "appointed days" mean are:
(1) The first ten days of Zil-Hajj. This view is supported by Ibn `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Qatadah and several other Companions and their followers. Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafi`i and Ahmad bin Hanbal have also favored this view.
(2) The tenth of Zil-Hajj and the three days following it. This view is supported by Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Hasan and `Ata'. Imams Shafi`i and Ahmad are also reported to have favored this in a saying each.
(3) The tenth day of Zil-Hajj and the two following days. This view has been supported by Hadrat `Umar, `Ali, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Hurairah, Said bin Musayyab and Said bin Jubair. Sufyan Thauri, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad from among the Jurists have also adopted it, and the Hanafites and the Malikites are also generally agreed on this.
The imperative mood of the verb has given rise to the misunderstanding that it is obligatory to eat their flesh and also to give of it to the needy people, Imams Shafi`i and Malik opine that it is good to eat of it and it is obligatory to give of it to others. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, both these things are permitted but are not obligatory. It is good to eat of it, for the people in the days of ignorance considered it unlawful to eat sacrificial meat of their own animals, and it is good to give of it to the poor by way of help. Ibn Jarir has cited instances from Hasan Basri, `Ata', Mujahid and Ibrahim Nakha`i to prove that the imperative mood dces not always imply a command, as for example in V: 2 and LXII: 10. Thus, ".... give of it to the indigent" does not mean that the flesh cannot be given to a rich person for the Companions of the Holy Prophet used to give of it to their friends, neighbors, relatives whether they were rich or poor. According to Ibn `Umar, one-third of the flesh may be consumed at home, one-third may be given to the neighbors and the remaining one-third distributed among the needy.
It means that after performing the essential Hajj rites, one should put off Ihram, have a shave, bath, etc. for one is free from the restrictions of Ihram after Hajj. However, one is not allowed to have sexual relations with his wife till one has performed the Tawaf of Ziyarah or Ifadah.
That is, the vow one has made for that occasion.
The Arabic word `Atiq, which has been used for the Ka`bah, is very meaningful for it implies:
(1) ancient,
(2) free from the sovereignty and ownership of anyone,
(3) honored and revered.
I am of the opinion that here the word Tawaf refers to the circumambulation performed on the tenth day of Zil-Hajj after setting aside Ihram, as the last ritual of Hajj, and is called Tawaf of Ifadah or Ziyarah (Visit).
22.28 Tustari - Al-Tustari
…And celebrate God’s name, on specified days, over the livestock He has provided for them…[By which] is meant the gifts and sacrifices. It was related of Fatḥ al-Mawṣilī that on the day of Eid he looked down over the city of Mosul and could see smoke rising from many houses, so he said, ‘O my Lord! How many people are drawing closer to You through sacrifice (qurbān) this night! I have also tried to draw closer to You through sacrifice,’ that is to say, through prayers (ṣalawāt). ‘What will You make of it, O Beloved One?’ It was related of ʿAdī b. Thābital-Anṣārī that he said, ‘The sacrifice of those who are mindful of God (muttaqūn) is prayer.’ But God knows best.His words: