The Quran

Commentaries for 22.27

Al Hajj (The pilgrimage) - الحج

22.27 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And proclaim unto mankind) call your offspring for (the Pilgrimage. They will come unto you) so that they come to you (on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine) from every road and remote land.
22.27 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
And announce, call out, among the people the [season for] Pilgrimage. Thus he cried out from [the top of] the mountain of Abū Qubays, ‘O people, your Lord has built a House and has made pilgrimage to it an obligation upon you, so respond to [the call of] your Lord’, turning his face to the right and to the left, to the east and to the west; and every one of those for whom the performance of the pilgrimage had been preordained [by God] from among the loins of men and the wombs of women, responded to him [thus]: ‘At Your service, our Lord, [we are] at Your service’ (labbayka’Llāhumma labbayk). The response to the command [clause] is [the following]: and they shall come to you on foot, walking (rijāl, plural of rājil, similar [in pattern] to qā’im, ‘standing’, and [its plural] qiyām) and, riding, on every lean camel, that is, [on] every emaciated camel (dāmir, [this term] may be used to refer to both male and female [camels]). They shall come, that is, the lean camels (by grammatical agreement with the [feminine verb] form) from every deep ravine, [from every] distant route,
22.26-27 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Building of the Ka`bah and the Proclamation of the Hajj
This is a rebuke to those among Quraysh who worshipped others than Allah and joined partners with Him in the place which from the outset had been established on the basis of Tawhid and the worship of Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. Allah tells us that He showed Ibrahim the site of the `Atiq House, i.e., He guided him to it, entrusted it to him and granted him permission to build it. Many scholars take this as evidence to support their view that Ibrahim was the first one to build the House and that it was not built before his time. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Dharr said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, which Masjid was the first to be built' He said,
«الْمَسْجِدُ الْحَرَام»
(Al-Masjid Al-Haram.) I said, `Then which' He said,
«بَيْتُ الْمَقْدِس»
(Bayt Al-Maqdis.) I said, `How long between them' He said,
«أَرْبَعُونَ سَنَة»
(Forty years.)'' And Allah says:
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِى بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكاً
(Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing) 3:96 until the end of following two Ayat. Allah says:
وَعَهِدْنَآ إِلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِىَ لِلطَّآئِفِينَ وَالْعَـكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(and We commanded Ibrahim and Isma`il that they should purify My House for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I`tikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves.) 2:125 And Allah says here:
أَن لاَّ تُشْرِكْ بِى شَيْئاً
(Associate not anything with Me,) meaning, `Build it in My Name Alone.'
وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِىَ
(and sanctify My House) Qatadah and Mujahid said, "And purify it from Shirk.
لِلطَّآئِفِينَ وَالْقَآئِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(for those who circumambulate it, and those who stand up, and those who bow, and make prostration (in prayer)) means, `and make it purely for those who worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate.' What is meant by "those who circumambulate it'' is obvious, since this is an act of worship that is done only at the Ka`bah and not at any other spot on earth.
(and those who stand up) means, in prayer. Allah says:
وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(and those who bow, and make prostration.) Tawaf and prayer are mentioned together because they are not prescribed together anywhere except in relation to the House. Tawaf is done around the Ka`bah and prayer is offered facing its direction in the majority of cases, with a few exceptions, such as when one is uncertain of the direction of the Qiblah, during battle and when praying optional prayers while traveling. And Allah knows best.
وَأَذِّن فِى النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ
(And proclaim to mankind the Hajj) meaning, `announce the pilgrimage to mankind and call them to perform pilgrimage to this House which We have commanded you to build.' It was said that Ibrahim said: "O Lord, how can I convey this to people when my voice will not reach them'' It was said: "Call them and We will convey it.'' So Ibrahim stood up and said, "O mankind! Your Lord has established a House so come on pilgrimage to it.'' It is said that the mountains lowered themselves so that his voice would reach all the regions of the earth, and those who were still in their mothers' wombs and their fathers' loins would hear the call. The response came from everyone in the cities, deserts and countryside, and those whom Allah has decreed will make the pilgrimage, until the Day of Resurrection: "At Your service, O Allah, at Your service.'' This is a summary of the narrations from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others among the Salaf. And Allah knows best. This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and by Ibn Abi Hatim at length.
يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالاً وَعَلَى كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ
(They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel,) This Ayah was used as evidence by those scholars whose view is that Hajj performed on foot by those who are able, is better than Hajj performed riding, because the phrase "on foot'' is mentioned first, and because it is an indication of their keenness and resolve. Waki` narrated from Abu Al-`Umays from Abu Halhalah from Muhammad bin Ka`b that Ibn `Abbas said, "I do not regret anything except for the fact that I wish I had performed Hajj on foot, because Allah says,
يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالاً
(They will come to you on foot).'' But the majority are of the view that performing Hajj while riding is better, following the example of the Messenger of Allah, because he performed Hajj riding, although his physical ability was sound.
يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ
(they will come from every Fajj) means every route, as Allah says:
وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجاً سُبُلاً
(and We placed therein Fijaj for them to pass) 21:31.
(`Amiq) means dis- tant. This was the view of Mujahid, `Ata', As-Suddi, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayan, Ath-Thawri and others. This Ayah is like the Ayah in which Allah tells us how Ibrahim prayed for his family,
فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مَّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِى إِلَيْهِمْ
(So fill some hearts among men with love towards them) 14:37. There is no one among the Muslims who does not long to see the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf, people come to this spot from every corner of the world.
22.26-29 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Some commentators opine that the address to Prophet Abraham ends with v. 26 and say that the Command contained in v. 27 was addressed to the Holy Prophet; but this opinion does not fit in with the context. For it is obvious that this Command also was addressed to Prophet Abraham when he had built the Ka`bah. Moreover, the command implies that the House of Allah had been built for the worship of One Allah and there was general permission from the very first day for all worshipers to visit it for performing Hajj.
The expression "lean camels" has been deliberately used to depict the picture of the camels of pilgrims coming from far-off places to perform Hajj.
In my opinion the address to Prophet Abraham comes to an end with v. 27 and vv. 28-29 have been added to emphasize and give further instructions for the performance of Hajj. We have based this opinion on the use of the epithet "Ancient House of the Ka`bah". It could not have been used at the time when Prophet Abraham built it. (For further details about the construction of the Ka`bah see II: 125-129, III: 96, 97 and XIV: 35-41).
"The benefits" include both religious and worldly benefits. It was due mainly to the Ka`bah that during the period of 2500 years between the times of Prophet Abraham and the Holy Prophet, the Arabs, in spite of their tribal life, remained attached to one central place and continued to visit it from all parts of Arabia for performing Hajj year after year. This in turn preserved their language, their culture and their Arab identity. Then during the course of the year they were afforded at least four months of perfect peace when anybody and everybody could safely travel alone or in trade caravans; thus the ritual of Hajj was directly beneficial to economic life of the country as well. For details see III: 97 and E.N's 80, 81 thereof, and V: 97 and E.N. 113 thereof.
"The cattle" here imply the camel, cow, sheep and goat as has been clearly mentioned in VI:142-144."... they should mention the name of Allah over the cattle" implies that they should slaughter the cattle for Allah's. sake and in His name, as is clear from the subsequent sentences. Allah's name should be recited at the time the cattle are slaughtered to show that the Muslims are to slaughter and sacrifice animals in Allah's name alone so as to distinguish them from the disbelievers who slaughtered animals without mentioning Allah's name or by mentioning other names than that of Allah.
As regards "the known appointed days", there is a difference of opinion as to their exact identity. Some of the opinions as to what the "appointed days" mean are:
(1) The first ten days of Zil-Hajj. This view is supported by Ibn `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Qatadah and several other Companions and their followers. Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafi`i and Ahmad bin Hanbal have also favored this view.
(2) The tenth of Zil-Hajj and the three days following it. This view is supported by Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Hasan and `Ata'. Imams Shafi`i and Ahmad are also reported to have favored this in a saying each.
(3) The tenth day of Zil-Hajj and the two following days. This view has been supported by Hadrat `Umar, `Ali, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Hurairah, Said bin Musayyab and Said bin Jubair. Sufyan Thauri, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad from among the Jurists have also adopted it, and the Hanafites and the Malikites are also generally agreed on this.
The imperative mood of the verb has given rise to the misunderstanding that it is obligatory to eat their flesh and also to give of it to the needy people, Imams Shafi`i and Malik opine that it is good to eat of it and it is obligatory to give of it to others. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, both these things are permitted but are not obligatory. It is good to eat of it, for the people in the days of ignorance considered it unlawful to eat sacrificial meat of their own animals, and it is good to give of it to the poor by way of help. Ibn Jarir has cited instances from Hasan Basri, `Ata', Mujahid and Ibrahim Nakha`i to prove that the imperative mood dces not always imply a command, as for example in V: 2 and LXII: 10. Thus, ".... give of it to the indigent" does not mean that the flesh cannot be given to a rich person for the Companions of the Holy Prophet used to give of it to their friends, neighbors, relatives whether they were rich or poor. According to Ibn `Umar, one-third of the flesh may be consumed at home, one-third may be given to the neighbors and the remaining one-third distributed among the needy.
It means that after performing the essential Hajj rites, one should put off Ihram, have a shave, bath, etc. for one is free from the restrictions of Ihram after Hajj. However, one is not allowed to have sexual relations with his wife till one has performed the Tawaf of Ziyarah or Ifadah.
That is, the vow one has made for that occasion.
The Arabic word `Atiq, which has been used for the Ka`bah, is very meaningful for it implies:
(1) ancient,
(2) free from the sovereignty and ownership of anyone,
(3) honored and revered.
I am of the opinion that here the word Tawaf refers to the circumambulation performed on the tenth day of Zil-Hajj after setting aside Ihram, as the last ritual of Hajj, and is called Tawaf of Ifadah or Ziyarah (Visit).
22.27 Tustari - Al-Tustari
And announce among the people the [season for] Pilgrimage. They shall come to you on foot…Verily God, Exalted is He, has servants among whom some go to mosques on thrones (sarīr), and some ride on conveyances of gold covered with silk and drawn by angels.Aḥmad b. Sālim said, ‘I was working on a piece of land to improve it, when I saw Sahl on a couch above the water of the Euphrates River.’ He also said, ‘One day I entered Sahl’s house, the door of which was very small, and I saw a horse standing there. Then I left in fright, wondering how it could have entered through such a small door. Sahl saw me and told me to come back, so I returned and saw nothing there.’ It has been related that ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb was gazing down on the congregation at ʿArafāt and said, ‘If only the congregation in this plain knew [the hosts] who have descended, they would have rejoiced at His bounty (faḍl) after [receiving tidings of] being forgiven (maghfira)’. His words: