Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham) when We explained to Abraham (the place of the (holy) House) by means of a cloud which had stopped close to him, and so he built the House by the side whereby the cloud stopped. And We inspired him (saying: Ascribe thou no thing) no idols (as partner unto Me, and purify My House) purify My Mosque from idols (for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand) and those who live there (and those who bow and make prostration) the people who pray from all countries and from wherever they happen to come.
When We built for Abraham the place of the House: “Associate nothing with Me, and make My house pure for those who circumambulate, stand, and bow in prostration.”
Ibn ʿAṬāÌ said, “We gave him the success to build the House, We gave him the ability to do so, We helped him with it, and We said to him, 'Associate nothing with Me,' that is, 'Do not have any regard for the House and do not look at the fact that you built it.'”
He is saying, “We gave Abraham ability and We gave him means, tools, strength, skill, power, and help so that he could build the house of the Kaabah as We wanted and commanded. Then We said to him, 'Do not look at what you have done and what you have made. Look at Our successgiving and Our help. Do not look at your striving but see Our desire and solicitude.”
O chevalier! The servant was given two eyes so that with one eye he would see the attributes of his own soul's blights and with the other eye the gentle attributes of the Real's generosity. With one eye he sees His bounty, with the other eye his own acts. When he sees His bounty, he boasts of it, and when he sees his own acts he shows poverty. When he sees the generosity of the Beginningless, he becomes joyful, and when he sees the footsteps of dust's nonexistence, he becomes needful.
That distracted man of ʿIrāq [Shiblī], burnt by the fire of separation, used to say, “Would that I were fuel for the furnace and had not heard this tale!”
Sometimes he would say, “Where are the proximate angels and residents of the Holy Palisades?! Let them spread their carpets before the throne of my good fortune and the chair of my exaltedness!”
Sometimes my hands are full of silver, sometimes I'm poor.
Sometimes my heart's elated, sometimes wounded. Sometimes I'm behind the people, sometimes ahead-
I indeed am the chameleon of the days.
And make My house pure. In the tongue of learning, this is the Kaabah, but according to the explanation by allusion, the meaning is, “Empty your heart of all things save the remembrance of God.” He is saying, “Occupy your heart totally with My remembrance and do not give any stranger or other access to it, for the heart is the container of the wine of My affection and love.”
“The hearts are God's containers in the earth. The most beloved of the containers to God is the most limpid, the most tender, and the most solid.” Any heart that is more limpid in relation to engendered beings and more merciful toward the faithful is more exalted and beloved to the Exalted Presence. The heart is the sultan of your makeup. Be careful to consider it exalted and preserve it from the opacity of caprice and appetite. Do not pollute it with the darkness and appetite of this world.
Revelation came to David: “'O David, make for Me a pure house in which I may reside!' O David, make the house pure so that the Lord of the house may settle down in the house.”
He said, “'Lord God, which house can embrace You?' Which house is suited for Your tremendousness and majesty?”
He said, “That is the heart of the faithful servant.” David said, “Lord God, how can I make it pure?”
He said, “Strike the fire of love to it so that everything that does not have My lineage may burn away. Then sweep it with the broom of remorse so that if anything is left it may be swept pure. O David, after that if you see anyone perplexed in the road of seeking Me, take that as the mark, for the pavilion of My holiness is there. 'I am with fevered hearts.'”
And, mention, when We settled, [when] We pointed out, for Abraham the site of the House, that he may build it — for it [the House] had been raised [to heaven] at the time of the Flood — and We commanded him, [saying]: ‘Do not ascribe any partner to Me and purify My House, of graven images, for those who circumambulate it and those who are resident, staying therein, and those who bow and prostrate ([al-rukka‘ and al-sujūd] are the plural forms of rāki‘ and sājid [respectively]), those praying.
Building of the Ka`bah and the Proclamation of the Hajj
This is a rebuke to those among Quraysh who worshipped others than Allah and joined partners with Him in the place which from the outset had been established on the basis of Tawhid and the worship of Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. Allah tells us that He showed Ibrahim the site of the `Atiq House, i.e., He guided him to it, entrusted it to him and granted him permission to build it. Many scholars take this as evidence to support their view that Ibrahim was the first one to build the House and that it was not built before his time. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Dharr said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, which Masjid was the first to be built' He said,
(Al-Masjid Al-Haram.) I said, `Then which' He said,
(Bayt Al-Maqdis.) I said, `How long between them' He said,
(for those who circumambulate it, and those who stand up, and those who bow, and make prostration (in prayer)) means, `and make it purely for those who worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate.' What is meant by "those who circumambulate it'' is obvious, since this is an act of worship that is done only at the Ka`bah and not at any other spot on earth.
(and those who stand up) means, in prayer. Allah says:
(and those who bow, and make prostration.) Tawaf and prayer are mentioned together because they are not prescribed together anywhere except in relation to the House. Tawaf is done around the Ka`bah and prayer is offered facing its direction in the majority of cases, with a few exceptions, such as when one is uncertain of the direction of the Qiblah, during battle and when praying optional prayers while traveling. And Allah knows best.
وَأَذِّن فِى النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ
(And proclaim to mankind the Hajj) meaning, `announce the pilgrimage to mankind and call them to perform pilgrimage to this House which We have commanded you to build.' It was said that Ibrahim said: "O Lord, how can I convey this to people when my voice will not reach them'' It was said: "Call them and We will convey it.'' So Ibrahim stood up and said, "O mankind! Your Lord has established a House so come on pilgrimage to it.'' It is said that the mountains lowered themselves so that his voice would reach all the regions of the earth, and those who were still in their mothers' wombs and their fathers' loins would hear the call. The response came from everyone in the cities, deserts and countryside, and those whom Allah has decreed will make the pilgrimage, until the Day of Resurrection: "At Your service, O Allah, at Your service.'' This is a summary of the narrations from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others among the Salaf. And Allah knows best. This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and by Ibn Abi Hatim at length.
يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالاً وَعَلَى كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ
(They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel,) This Ayah was used as evidence by those scholars whose view is that Hajj performed on foot by those who are able, is better than Hajj performed riding, because the phrase "on foot'' is mentioned first, and because it is an indication of their keenness and resolve. Waki` narrated from Abu Al-`Umays from Abu Halhalah from Muhammad bin Ka`b that Ibn `Abbas said, "I do not regret anything except for the fact that I wish I had performed Hajj on foot, because Allah says,
(They will come to you on foot).'' But the majority are of the view that performing Hajj while riding is better, following the example of the Messenger of Allah, because he performed Hajj riding, although his physical ability was sound.
يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ
(they will come from every Fajj) means every route, as Allah says:
وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجاً سُبُلاً
(and We placed therein Fijaj for them to pass) 21:31.
(`Amiq) means dis- tant. This was the view of Mujahid, `Ata', As-Suddi, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayan, Ath-Thawri and others. This Ayah is like the Ayah in which Allah tells us how Ibrahim prayed for his family,
(So fill some hearts among men with love towards them) 14:37. There is no one among the Muslims who does not long to see the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf, people come to this spot from every corner of the world.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Some commentators opine that the address to Prophet Abraham ends with v. 26 and say that the Command contained in v. 27 was addressed to the Holy Prophet; but this opinion does not fit in with the context. For it is obvious that this Command also was addressed to Prophet Abraham when he had built the Ka`bah. Moreover, the command implies that the House of Allah had been built for the worship of One Allah and there was general permission from the very first day for all worshipers to visit it for performing Hajj.
The expression "lean camels" has been deliberately used to depict the picture of the camels of pilgrims coming from far-off places to perform Hajj.
In my opinion the address to Prophet Abraham comes to an end with v. 27 and vv. 28-29 have been added to emphasize and give further instructions for the performance of Hajj. We have based this opinion on the use of the epithet "Ancient House of the Ka`bah". It could not have been used at the time when Prophet Abraham built it. (For further details about the construction of the Ka`bah see II: 125-129, III: 96, 97 and XIV: 35-41).
"The benefits" include both religious and worldly benefits. It was due mainly to the Ka`bah that during the period of 2500 years between the times of Prophet Abraham and the Holy Prophet, the Arabs, in spite of their tribal life, remained attached to one central place and continued to visit it from all parts of Arabia for performing Hajj year after year. This in turn preserved their language, their culture and their Arab identity. Then during the course of the year they were afforded at least four months of perfect peace when anybody and everybody could safely travel alone or in trade caravans; thus the ritual of Hajj was directly beneficial to economic life of the country as well. For details see III: 97 and E.N's 80, 81 thereof, and V: 97 and E.N. 113 thereof.
"The cattle" here imply the camel, cow, sheep and goat as has been clearly mentioned in VI:142-144."... they should mention the name of Allah over the cattle" implies that they should slaughter the cattle for Allah's. sake and in His name, as is clear from the subsequent sentences. Allah's name should be recited at the time the cattle are slaughtered to show that the Muslims are to slaughter and sacrifice animals in Allah's name alone so as to distinguish them from the disbelievers who slaughtered animals without mentioning Allah's name or by mentioning other names than that of Allah.
As regards "the known appointed days", there is a difference of opinion as to their exact identity. Some of the opinions as to what the "appointed days" mean are:
(1) The first ten days of Zil-Hajj. This view is supported by Ibn `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Qatadah and several other Companions and their followers. Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafi`i and Ahmad bin Hanbal have also favored this view.
(2) The tenth of Zil-Hajj and the three days following it. This view is supported by Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Ibrahim Nakha`i, Hasan and `Ata'. Imams Shafi`i and Ahmad are also reported to have favored this in a saying each.
(3) The tenth day of Zil-Hajj and the two following days. This view has been supported by Hadrat `Umar, `Ali, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Hurairah, Said bin Musayyab and Said bin Jubair. Sufyan Thauri, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad from among the Jurists have also adopted it, and the Hanafites and the Malikites are also generally agreed on this.
The imperative mood of the verb has given rise to the misunderstanding that it is obligatory to eat their flesh and also to give of it to the needy people, Imams Shafi`i and Malik opine that it is good to eat of it and it is obligatory to give of it to others. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, both these things are permitted but are not obligatory. It is good to eat of it, for the people in the days of ignorance considered it unlawful to eat sacrificial meat of their own animals, and it is good to give of it to the poor by way of help. Ibn Jarir has cited instances from Hasan Basri, `Ata', Mujahid and Ibrahim Nakha`i to prove that the imperative mood dces not always imply a command, as for example in V: 2 and LXII: 10. Thus, ".... give of it to the indigent" does not mean that the flesh cannot be given to a rich person for the Companions of the Holy Prophet used to give of it to their friends, neighbors, relatives whether they were rich or poor. According to Ibn `Umar, one-third of the flesh may be consumed at home, one-third may be given to the neighbors and the remaining one-third distributed among the needy.
It means that after performing the essential Hajj rites, one should put off Ihram, have a shave, bath, etc. for one is free from the restrictions of Ihram after Hajj. However, one is not allowed to have sexual relations with his wife till one has performed the Tawaf of Ziyarah or Ifadah.
That is, the vow one has made for that occasion.
The Arabic word `Atiq, which has been used for the Ka`bah, is very meaningful for it implies:
(2) free from the sovereignty and ownership of anyone,
(3) honored and revered.
I am of the opinion that here the word Tawaf refers to the circumambulation performed on the tenth day of Zil-Hajj after setting aside Ihram, as the last ritual of Hajj, and is called Tawaf of Ifadah or Ziyarah (Visit).
…Purify My House for those who circumambulate it…That is, ‘Purify My House from idols, for those among My servants whose hearts are pure from doubt (shakk), misgivings (rayb) and hardness (qaswa). Therefore, just as God has commandedthe purification of His House [at Mecca] from idols, so also He has commanded the purification of that house of His in which He deposited the mystery of faith (sirr al-īmān) and the light of gnosis (nūr al-maʿrifa), namely, the heart of the believer. God, Exalted is He, has commanded the believer to purify himself from rancour (ghill), deceit (ghishsh), inclination towards the lusts of the lower self (shahawāt al-nafs) and heedlessness (ghafla). For those who circumambulate it [the Kaʿba], as also for those who uphold the lights of faith, there will be manifold increase in [God-given] success (tawfīq).
…And those who bow and prostrate themselvesin fear and hope. Truly the heart ⸢is [like] a house⸣: if it is unoccupied it goes to ruin, and [likewise] if it is occupied by other than its owner, ⸢or by other than one whom the owner has settled there⸣, it will also go to ruin. Therefore, if you wish your hearts to be in good repair, do not let your prayer in them be other than to God, Exalted is He; ⸢if you want to keep your breasts (ṣuḍūr) in good repair, let not anything be in them other than [awareness of] the Hereafter⸣; if you want to preserve your tongues, do not let your prayer on them be other than truthfulness (ṣidq); and if you wish to preserve your bodily members, do not allow them to become engaged with anything other than what is in accordance with the Sunna.His words: