Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Hast thou not seen) have you not been informed, O Muhammad, in the Qur'an (that unto Allah payeth adoration whosoever is in the heavens) of created beings (and whosoever is in the earth) of the believers, (and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts) all of these prostrate to Allah, (and many of mankind) Paradise has been enjoined for them, these are the believers, (while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due) while the chastisement of the Fire has been enjoined upon many, these are the disbelievers. (He whom Allah scorneth) he whom Allah abases through damnation, (there is none to give him honour) through felicity; it is also said that this means: he whom Allah abases by means of ignorance, there is none to give him honour through knowledge. (Lo! Allah doeth what He will) with His created beings; He gives felicity and damnation, knowledge and ignorance.
Have you not seen, [have you not] realised, that to God prostrate whoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth, together with the sun and the moon, and the stars and the mountains, and the trees and the animals, that is, how they are submissive to Him in what He wills of them, as well as many of mankind?, namely, the believers, [who prostrate to Him] in addition to their submissiveness [to Him] when prostrating in prayer. And for many the chastisement has become due, and these are the disbelievers, for they refuse to prostrate, [an action] which is contingent on belief. And he whom God abases, [he whom] He makes unprosperous, there is none to give him honour, [none] to make him fortunate. Indeed God does whatever He will, in the way of abasing or giving honour.
Allah tells us that He alone, with no partner or associate, is deserving of worship. Everything prostrates to His might, willingly or unwillingly, and everything prostrates in a manner that befits its nature, as Allah says:
(See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth prostrate themselves to Him) means, the angels in the regions of the heavens, and all the living creatures, men, Jinn, animals and birds.
وَإِن مِّن شَىْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ
(and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise) 17:44.
وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ
(and the sun, and the moon, and the stars,) These are mentioned by name, because they are worshipped instead of Allah, so Allah explains that they too prostrate to their Creator and that they are subjected to Him.
(Prostrate yourselves not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them) 41:37. In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that Abu Dharr said, "The Messenger of Allah said to me,
«أَتَدْرِي أَيْنَ تَذْهَبُ هَذِهِ الشَّمْسُ؟»
(Do you know where this sun goes) I said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said,
(It goes (sets) and prostrates beneath the Throne, then it awaits the command. Soon it will be told, "Go back the way whence you came.'')'' Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came and said, `O Messenger of Allah, I saw myself in a dream last night, as if I was praying behind a tree. I prostrated, and the tree prostrated when I did, and I heard it saying, "O Allah, write down a reward for me for that, and remove a sin from me for that, store it with You for me and accept it from me as You accepted from Your servant Dawud.''' Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah recited an Ayah mentioning a prostration, then he prostrated, and I heard him saying the same words that the man had told him the tree said.'' This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih.
(Ad-Dawabb) means all the animals. It was reported in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad that the Messenger of Allah forbade using the backs of animals as platforms for speaking, for, perhaps the one who was being ridden was better and remembered Allah more than the one who was riding.
وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ
(and many of mankind) means, they prostrate willingly, submitting themselves to Allah of their own free will.
وَكَثِيرٌ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ الْعَذَابُ
(But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified.) means, those who refuse prostration, are stubborn and arrogant.
(When the son of Adam recites the Ayat containing the prostration, the Shaytan withdraws weeping and says, "Ah! Woe (to me)! the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate and he prostrated, so Paradise is his; I was commanded to prostrate and I refused, so I am doomed to Hell.'') This was recorded by Muslim. In his book Al-Marasil, Abu Dawud recorded that Khalid bin Ma`dan, may Allah have mercy upon him, reported that Allah's Messenger said,
(Surat Al-Hajj has been favored over the rest of the Qur'an with two prostrations.'') Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Isma`ili recorded from Abu Al-Jahm that `Umar did the two prostrations of Surat Al-Hajj when he was in Al-Jabiyah, and he said, "This Surah has been favored with two prostrations.''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This means the "Muslims" of every age who believed in the Prophets of Allah and His Books up to the time of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him): they included both the sincere Muslims and the wavering Muslims.
See E.N. 72 of Chapter IV (An-Nisa).
"Sabaeans": In ancient times two sects were known by this title:
(1) The followers of Prophet John, who were found in upper Iraq in large numbers and practiced baptism.
(2) The worshipers of stars, who ascribed their creed to Prophets Shith and Idris (peace be upon them) and believed that the elements were governed by the planets and the planets by the angels. Their center was at Harran with branches spread all over Iraq. These people have been well known for their knowledge of philosophy and science and their achievements in medicine.
Probably here the first sect is referred to, because the second sect was not known by this name at the time the Qur'an was revealed.
See E. N. 36 of Chapter V (AI-Ma'idah).
That is, the fire-worshipers of Iran, who believed in two gods -one of light and the other of darknesses-and regarded themselves as the followers of Zoroaster. Their creed and morals were so corrupted by Mazdak that a brother could easily enter into matrimony with his sister.
That is, "The mushriks of Arabia and of other countries, who had no special name like those mentioned above."
That is, "Allah will pass His judgment on the Day of Resurrection in regard to all the differences and disputes which take place between different people and different religions and will decide which of them was right and which was wrong. "
See E.N. 25 Chapter XIII (Ar-Ra`d) and E.N. 41 of Chapter XVI (An-Nahl).
That is, "Angels, stars, planets, etc. and all the creation that exists in other parts of the universe, whether it is rational and possesses freedom of will and choice like man, or irrational like animals, vegetation, solid matter, air and light.
That is, "A large number of the people bow down before Allah not by compulsion but willingly. On the other hand, there are many other people who bow down before Him under compulsion along with everything else in the universe, but they deserve punishment because they refuse to obey Allah in those spheres of life in which they have the choice to obey or not to obey.
That is, though the Final Judgment will be passed on the Day of Resurrection, a discerning eye can see even today those "who have already deserved the torment." For instance, the man who rejects the Message of the open book of Nature and the Message of the Prophets and adopts self-made false creeds and then disputes about them with the Believers, proves himself to be in manifest error in this world as well.
In this verse "honor" and "disgrace" mean the acceptance of the Truth and its rejection. It is obvious that the one who does not see manifest realities is doomed to disgrace: for Allah lets him attain what he desires and works for; and when Allah does not bestow on anyone the honor of following the Truth, there is none else who can bestow it on him.
Here it is obligatory to perform a sajdah (prostration), which is agreed upon by all Jurists. For further details please See E.N. 157 of Chapter VII (Al-A'raf).
…the sun and the moon... He said:The prostration of these things consists of their recognition (maʿrifa) of God [manifested] through their abasing themsleves (tadhallul) and submitting (inqiyād) to Him.His words: