Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Then We heard his prayer and removed that adversity) the suffering (from which he suffered, and We gave him his household) in Paradise that he had lost in this worldly life (and the like thereof along with them) and gave him children in this world the like of those he lost, (a mercy) a blessing (from Our store, and a remembrance for the worshippers) an admonition for the believers;
So We responded to him, in his call, and removed the harm that had befallen him, and We gave him [back] his family, his male and female children, by bringing them back to life — of each sex there were three or seven along with them [other children] the like of them, from his wife, for she was made younger. He had also possessed a threshing floor for wheat and another for barley, so God sent two clouds and one of them poured forth gold onto the wheat threshing floor and the other poured forth silver onto the barley threshing floor, until they overflowed; as a mercy (rahmatan, a direct object denoting reason) from Us (min ‘indinā, an adjectival phrase) and a reminder to worshippers, that they be patient and thus be rewarded [by God].
The Prophet Ayyub Allah tells us about Ayyub (Job), and the trials that struck him, affecting his wealth, children and physical health.
He had plenty of livestock, cattle and crops, many children and beautiful houses, and he was tested in these things, losing every thing he had. Then he was tested with regard to his body, and he was left alone on the edge of the city and there was no one who treated him with compassion apart from his wife, who took care of him. It was said that it reached the stage where she was in need, so she started to serve people (to earn money) for his sake. The Prophet said:
(A man will be tested according to his level of religious commitment; the stronger his religious commitment, the more severe will be his test.) The Prophet of Allah, Ayyub, upon him be peace, had the utmost patience, and he is the best example of that. Yazid bin Maysarah said: "When Allah tested Ayyub, upon him be peace, with the loss of his family, wealth and children, and he had nothing left, he started to focus upon the remembrance of Allah, and he said: `I praise You, the Lord of lords, Who bestowed His kindness upon me and gave me wealth and children, and there was no corner of my heart that was not filled with attachment to these worldly things, then You took all of that away from me and You emptied my heart, and there is nothing to stand between me and You. If my enemy Iblis knew of this, he would be jealous of me. ' When Iblis heard of this, he became upset. And Ayyub, upon him be peace, said: `O Lord, You gave me wealth and children, and there was no one standing at my door complaining of some wrong I had done to him. You know that. I used to have a bed prepared for me, but I forsook it and said to myself: You were not created to lie on a comfortable bed. I only forsook that for Your sake.''' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:
(When Allah healed Ayyub, He sent upon him a shower of golden locusts, and he started to pick them up and gather them in his garment. It was said to him, "O Ayyub, have you not had enough'' He said, "O Lord, who can ever have enough of Your mercy) The basis of this Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs, as we shall see below.
وَءَاتَيْنَـهُ أَهْلَهُ وَمِثْلَهُمْ مَّعَهُمْ
(and We restored his family to him (that he had lost) and the like thereof along with them) It was reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "They themselves were restored to him.'' This was also narrated by Al-`Awfi from Ibn `Abbas. Something similar was also narrated from Ibn Mas`ud and Mujahid, and this was the view of Al-Hasan and Qatadah. Mujahid said: "It was said to him, `O Ayyub, your family will be with you in Paradise; if you want, We will bring them back to you, or if you want, We will leave them for you in Paradise and will compensate you with others like them.' He said, `No, leave them for me in Paradise.' So they were left for him in Paradise, and he was compensated with others like them in this world.''
رَحْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا
(as a mercy from Ourselves) means, `We did that to him as a mercy from Allah towards him.'
(and a Reminder for all those who worship Us.) means, `We made him an example lest those who are beset by trials think that We do that to them because We do not care for them, so that they may take him as an example of patience in accepting the decrees of Allah and bearing the trials with which He tests His servants as He wills.' And Allah has the utmost wisdom with regard to that.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
There is a wide divergence of opinion concerning the personality, period and nationality of Prophet Job. Some commentators opine that he was an Israelite, while others think that he was an Egyptian or an Arab who lived before Prophet Moses, or during the time of Prophets David and Solomon. As all these conjectures are based on the Book of Job, which is self-contradictory and against the Qur'an, nothing can be said about him with certainty, but in the light of the Book of Isaiah (8th century BC) and the Book of Ezekiel (6th century BC), which are more trustworthy works, he lived in the 9th century BC or even earlier. As regards his nationality, the context in which his name occurs in IV: 163 and VI: 84, it may be assumed that he was an Israelite. According to a saying of Hadrat Wahb bin Munabbih, he might have been from the offspring of Esau, a son of Prophet Isaac.
The words of the prayer are note-worthy. Prophet Job mentions his distress but does not say anything more to his Lord except: "Thou art most Merciful" This is a great proof of his fortitude, noble and contented nature.
How his disease was cured has been explained in XXXVIII: 42: "Stamp the ground with your foot: here is cool water for you to wash with and to drink." From this it appears that no sooner did he stamp the ground than a spring gushed forth. He took bath and drank the water and was cured of his disease. The nature of the treatment hints that he was suffering from a skin disease. This is confirmed by the Bible as well. "Satan smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown. "- (Job, 2:7).
It will be worth-while to compare the high character of Prophet Job as given in the Qur'an with that in the Book of Job in the Bible. The Qur'an presents him as a veritable picture of patience and fortitude and an-excellent model for the worshippers of Allah, but his general picture presented in the Book of Job is that of a man who is full of grievance against God: "Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night in which it was said, There is a man child conceived.... Let them curse (the night) that curse the day,.....Because it shut not the doors of my mother's womb, nor did sorrow from mine eyes. Why died I not from the womb?^ (Chapter 3)..... "Oh that my grief were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balance together.....the arrows of the Almighty are within me, the poison whereof drinketh up my spirit: the terrors of God do set themselves in array against me." (Chapter 6).... "I have sinned; what shall I do unto thee, O thou preserver of men? Why hast thou set me as a mark against thee, so that I am a burden to myself? And why dost thou not pardon my transgressions, and take away my iniquity? (Chapter 7: 20-21).
His three friends try to console him and counsel patience, but in vain. He says, "My soul is weary of my life....l will speak in the bitterness of my soul" (10:1).... "I have heard many such things: miserable comforters are ye all." (16:.... "So these three men ceased to answer Job..... Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu.... against Job.... because he justified himself rather than God." (32:1-3), but he also failed to console him....Then the Lord himself came down and condemned the three friends and Elihu and rebuked Job and then forgave him, accepted him and blessed him." (Chapters 41, 42). It should be noted that in the first two chapters of this Book, Prophet Job is presented as a perfect and upright man who feared God, but in the following chapters he becomes an embodiment of grievance against God, as though the estimate of Satan about him was correct and that of God incorrect. Thus this Book itself is a clear evidence that it is neither the Word of God nor of Prophet lob but had been written afterwards by some literary man and incorporated in the Bible as a scripture.