The Quran

Commentaries for 2.98

Al Baqara (The cow) - البقرة

2.98 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His Messengers, and Gabriel and Michael! Then, Lo! Allah (Himself) is an enemy to disbelievers) to the Jews, just as Gabriel, Michael and all the believers are enemies of the Jews.
2.98 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel (read Jibrīl or Jabrīl, Jibra’il or Jabra’il, Jibra’īl or Jabra’īl), and Michael (Mīkāl, also read Mīkā’īl, or Mīkā’il; a supplement to malā’ikatihi, ‘His angels’, an example of the specific being supplemented to the collective) — then surely God is an enemy to the disbelievers’ (He says ‘to the disbelievers’ instead of ‘to them’ in order to point out their status).
2.98 Kashani - Kashani
Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael - then surely God is an enemy to the disbelievers'.
2.97-98 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril
Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari said, "The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mika'il (Michael) is their friend.'' Al-Bukhari said, "Allah said,
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ
(Whoever is an enemy of Jibril (let him die in his fury)). `Ikrimah said, "Jibr, Mik and Israf all mean, worshipper, while il means, Allah''. Anas bin Malik said, "When `Abdullah bin Salam heard of the arrival of the Prophet in Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came to the Prophet and said, `I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a Prophet. What will be the first portent of the Hour What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle' Allah's Messenger said, (Jibril has just told me the answers.) `Abdullah said, `He (i.e. Jibril), among all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews.' Allah's Messenger recited the Ayah,
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ
(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart). Allah's Messenger then said, (The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be the caudate lobe of the liver of fish. As for the child resembling his parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and his discharge is first, the child will resemble the father. If the woman has a discharge first, the child will resemble her side of the family.) On that `Abdullah bin Salam said, `I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah.' `Abdullah bin Salam further said, `O Allah's Messenger! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they will tell a lie about me.' The Jews came to Allah's Messenger, and `Abdullah went inside the house. Allah's Messenger asked (the Jews), (`What kind of man is `Abdullah bin Salam') They replied, `He is the best among us, the son of the best among us, our master and the son of our master.' Allah's Messenger said, (What do you think if he would embrace Islam) The Jews said, `May Allah save him from it.' Then `Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, `I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.' Thereupon they said, `He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest among us.' And they continued talking badly about him. Ibn Salam said, `This is what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!.''' Only Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith from Anas using another chain of narration.
Some people say that `il' means worshipper while whatever word that is added to it becomes Allah's Name, because `il' is a constant in such conjunction. This is similar to the names `Abdullah, `Abdur-Rahman, `Abdul-Malik, `Abdul-Quddus, `Abdus-Salam, `Abdul-Kafi, `Abdul-Jalil, and so forth. Hence, `Abd' is constant in these compound names, while the remainder differs from name to name. This is the same case with Jibril, Mika'il, `Azra'il, Israfil, and so forth. Allah knows best.
Choosing Some Angels to believe in over Others is Disbelief like choosing Some Prophets over Others
Allah said,
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ
(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart by Allah's permission,) meaning, whoever becomes an enemy of Jibril, let him know that he is Ruh Al-Qudus who brought down the Glorious Dhikr (Qur'an) to your heart from Allah by His leave. Hence, he is a messenger from Allah. Whoever takes a messenger as an enemy, will have taken all the messengers as enemies. Further, whoever believes in one messenger, is required to believe in all of the messengers. Whoever rejects one messenger, he has rejected all of the messengers. Similarly, Allah said,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ
(Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but reject others.'') (4:150)
Allah decreed that they are disbelievers, because they believe in some Prophets and reject others. This is the same with those who take Jibril as an enemy, because Jibril did not choose missions on his own, but by the command of his Lord,
وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلاَّ بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ
(And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord) (19: 64), and,
وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ - عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ
(And truly, this (the Qur'an) is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists. Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) that you may be (one) of the warners) (26:192-194).
Al-Bukhari reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَنْ عَادَى لِي وَلِيًّا فَقَدْ بَارَزَنِي بِالْحَرْب»
(Allah said, `Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, will have started a war with Me.)
Therefore, Allah became angry with those who took Jibril as an enemy. Allah said,
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ
(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it) meaning, the previous Books,
وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(and guidance and glad tidings for the believers) meaning, as guidance to their hearts and bringer of the good news of Paradise, which is exclusively for the believers. Similarly, Allah said,
قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ هُدًى وَشِفَآءٌ
(Say: "It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing.'') (41:44), and,
وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْءَانِ مَا هُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(And We send down of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe) (17:82).
Allah then said,
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لّلَّهِ وَمَلـئِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَـلَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ
(Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il (Michael), then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.)
Allah stated that whoever takes Him, His angels and messengers as enemies, then...Allah's messengers include angels and men, for Allah said,
اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِى مِنَ الْمَلَـئِكَةِ رُسُلاً وَمِنَ النَّاسِ
(Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men) (22:75). Allah said,
وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَـلَ
(Jibril (Gabriel) and Mika'il (Michael)). Allah mentioned Jibril and Mika'il specifically - although they are included among the angels who were messengers - only because this Ayah was meant to support Jibril the emissary between Allah and His Prophets. Allah also mentioned Mika'il here, because the Jews claimed that Jibril was their enemy and Mika'il was their friend. Allah informed them that whoever is an enemy of either of them, then he is also an enemy of the other as well as Allah. We should state here that Mika'il sometimes descended to some of Allah's Prophets, although to a lesser extent than Jibril, because this was primarily Jibril's task, and Israfil is entrusted with the job of blowing the Trumpet for the commencement of Resurrection on the Day of Judgment. It is recorded in the Sahih that whenever the Messenger of Allah would wake up at night, he would supplicate,
«اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ جِبْرَائِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ وَإِسْرَافِيلَ فَاطِرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ، اهْدِنِي لِمَا اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِكَ إِنَّكَ تَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ إِلى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيم»
(O Allah, Lord of Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen! You judge between Your servants regarding what they differ in, so direct me to the truth which they differ on, by Your leave. Verily, You guide whom You will to the straight path.)
Allah's statement,
فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ
(then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers) informed the disbelievers that whoever takes a friend of Allah as an enemy, then he has taken Allah as an enemy, and whoever treats Allah as an enemy, then he shall be Allah's enemy. Indeed, whoever is an enemy of Allah then he will lose in this life and the Hereafter, as stated earlier;
«مَنْ عَادَى لِي وَلِيًّا فَقَدْ آذَنْتُهُ بِالْمُحَارَبَة»
(Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, I shall wage war on him.)
2.97-98 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The Jews not only reviled Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) and the believers, but also spoke abusively of Gabriel, the chosen Divine Messenger. They said. "He is our enemy: He is not an angel of blessings but of affliction. "
As Gabriel revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) by Allah's Command, so by abusing Gabriel they actually abused Allah.
That is, "You abuse Gabriel for no other reason than that he has brought down the Qur'an, whereas the Qur'an confirms the teachings of the Torah; so, in a way, you abuse the Torah as well.
In the preceding verses, the Jews have been warned of the consequences of their attitude towards the Qur'an and the mission of the Holy Prophet. In this part of the verse, they have been admonished to consider the matter from another point of view. As the Qur'an shows the way to right guidance and brings good tidings to the believers, it is sheer folly to oppose it and reject it. Thus ney harm none but themselves by depriving themselves of the true success which follows its acceptance.
2.97-98 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
Say: “Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel-he it was that brought it down upon your heart by the leave of God confirming what was before it a guidance and good tidings for the believers. Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael-then surely God is an enemy to the disbelievers.” The Jews claimed that Gabriel did not come with good that they did not love him and that if it had been Michael they would have believed in him. The Real سبحانه showed them to be liars when He said “Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel [thinking] he did not bring good what good is greater than the QurÌān that descended through himḍ” Then He said that whoever is an enemy to Gabriel and Michael God is his enemy. Surely the messenger of the Beloved to the highly-esteemed beloved [Muḥammad] has a noble status and weighty rank. The enmity of the disbelievers does not harm Gabriel-the Real سبحانه وتعالى is his protector walī. Whoever is an enemy of Gabriel God is his enemy. How mighty and glorified is this status! How grand is His exaltedness!
2.98 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
(Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels…) [2:98]. Abu Bakr al-Asfahani informed us> al-Hafiz Abu'l-Shaykh [al-Asfahani]> Abu Yahya al-Razi> Sahl ibn 'Uthman> 'Ali ibn Mushir> Dawud> al-Sha'bi who said: “Said 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be well pleased with him: 'I used to go to the Jews upon their study of the Torah and was amazed to see the conformity of the Qur'an with the Torah and of the Torah with the Qur'an. On one occasion they said: 'O 'Umar! We do not like anyone more than we like you'. I asked: 'And why is that?' They said: 'Because you come to us and mix with us'. I said: 'I come to you only because of my amazement at how the different parts of the Book of Allah strengthen each other, and how the Qur'an is in conformity with the Torah and how the Torah is in conformity with the Qur'an'. As I was with them one day, Allah's Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, passed by behind me. The Jews said: 'Here is your man; go to him! He has just got to an alley of Medina'. I turned to them and asked: 'I adjure you by Allah and by that which was revealed to you of Scripture, do you know that he is Allah's Messenger?' Their chief said to them: 'He has implored you by Allah, so do tell him'. They said: 'You are our chief; you tell him'. Their chief said: 'We do know that he is Allah's Messenger!' I said: 'You are the one who shall be subject to the worst form of destruction if you all know that he is Allah's Messenger and then do not follow him'. They said: 'We have an enemy among the angels as we have an ally from amongst them'. I asked: 'Who is your enemy and who is your ally?' They said: 'Our enemy is Gabriel who is the angel of harshness and coarseness, burden and hardship'. I said: 'And who is your ally?' They said: 'Michael who is the angel of tenderness, gentleness and ease'. I said: 'In that case I bear witness that it is not allowable for Gabriel to declare enmity to the allies of Michael nor is it allowable for Michael to be an ally to the enemies of Gabriel, for both, including all those who are with them, are enemies to those who declare any one of them as an enemy, as they are allies to whomever is an ally to any one of them'. I then stood up and left and got to the alley which Allah's Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, had entered. The Prophet welcomed me and then said: 'O son of al-Khattab, shall I recite to you some verses which were revealed to me a while ago?' I said: 'Please do!' He recited (is an enemy to Gabriel…) up to Allah's saying (and only miscreants will disbelieve in them) [2:99]. I said: 'By Him Who has sent you as a prophet with the truth, I did not come to see you except to inform you of what the Jews say. But the Subtle and Knowing has already informed you before me'. 'Umar said: 'You have already seen me harder than a stone when it came to the religion of Allah' ”. Ibn 'Abbas also said: “A Jewish rabbi from Fadak by the name of 'Abd Allah ibn Suwriya argued with the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and also asked him a few questions. When the argument started to turn against him, he asked: 'Who is the angel who comes to you from heaven?' The Prophet said: 'Gabriel. Allah did not send any prophet except that Gabriel is his ally'. The rabbi said: 'Gabriel is our enemy among the angels. If it had been Michael instead of him we would have believed in you. Gabriel brings down chastisement, fighting and hardship. He showed enmity to us in many occasions. What was even harder to take is that Allah had revealed to our Prophet that Jerusalem would be sacked at the hand of a man called Bukhtunassar [Nebuchadnezzar] and informed us also of the time it would be sacked. When that time came, we sent one of the strong men of the Children of Israel to find Bukhtunassar and kill him. He looked for him until he found him in Babel, a poor boy without any strength. Our man seized him to finish him off but Gabriel intervened. He said to our man: 'If it is your Lord who has given leave for your destruction, then you will not be set on him. And if He has not, why would you kill him?' Our man believed him and came back to us. Bukhtunassar grew up, gained strength, conquered us and sacked Jerusalem. This is why we consider him our enemy'. Allah revealed this verse because of this”. Said Muqatil: “The Jews said: 'Gabriel is our enemy; he was commanded to place Prophethood amongst us, but he placed it with others'. Allah revealed this verse as a response”.