Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And when We made with you a covenant) when we took your consent (and caused the Mount to tower above you) extracted it, elevated it and fixed it above your heads: (Hold fast by that which We have given you) be diligent and earnest with what We have given you of the Book, (and hear) obey what you have been commanded, (they said: We hear and rebel) it is as if they were saying: if it were not for the mountain we would have heard your saying and disobeyed your command. (And (worship of) the calf was made to sink into their hearts) their love of worshipping the calf sank into their hearts (because of their rejection) as a punishment for their disbelief. (Say (unto them)) O Muhammad! If love of worshipping the calf is equal in your eyes to love of your Creator, then: (Evil is that which your belief enjoineth on you) the worship of the calf enjoins on you, (if ye are believers) if you are truthful that your forefathers were believers.
And when We made a covenant with you, to act according to what is in the Torah, and raised over you the Mount, to drop it on you, when you had refused to accept it; We said, ‘Take forcefully, seriously and with effort, what We have given you, and listen’, to what you have been commanded, and be prepared to accept it, They said, ‘We hear, your words, and disobey’, your command; and they were made to drink the calf in their hearts, that is to say, the love of it [the golden calf] intoxicated their hearts in the way that wine does, on account of their unbelief. Say, to them: ‘Evil is that, thing, which your belief, in the Torah, enjoins on you, [in the way of] the worship of the [golden] calf, if you are believers’, in it, as you claim; meaning, you are not believers, for faith does not command that you worship the calf — their forefathers are meant here. Likewise, you do not believe in the Torah, because you have denied [the prophethood of] Muhammad (s), whereas faith in it does not command you to reject him.
And when We made a covenant with you, and raised over you the Mount, 'Take forcefully what We have given you, and listen', they said, 'We hear and disobey'; and they were made to drink the calf in their hearts on account of their unbelief. Say: 'Evil is that which your belief enjoins on you, if you are believers'.
The Jews rebel after Allah took Their Covenant and raised the Mountain above Their Heads
Allah reminded the Jews of their errors, breaking His covenant, transgression and defiance, when He raised Mount Tur above them so that they would believe and agree to the terms of the covenant. Yet, they broke it soon afterwards,
قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا
(They said, "We have heard and disobeyed.'') We have mentioned the Tafsir of this subject before. `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar narrated that Qatadah said that,
(And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf) means, "They absorbed its love, until its love resided in their hearts.'' This is also the opinion of Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah's statement,
(Say: "Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers.'') means, "Worse yet is the manner in which you behaved in the past and even now, disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and defying the Prophets. You also disbelieved in Muhammad, which is the worst of your deeds and the harshest sin that you committed. You disbelieved in the Final Messenger and the master of all Prophets and Messengers, the one who was sent to all mankind. How can you then claim that you believe, while committing the evil of breaking Allah's covenant, disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and worshipping the calf instead of Allah"
And when We made a covenant with you and raised over you the mount “Take forcefully what We have given you and listen” they said “We hear and disobey”; and they were made to drink the calf in their hearts on account of their unbelief. Say: “Evil is that which your belief enjoins on you if you are believers.” He reiterates the tale of their excessive love for the calf their aversion to accepting the Real and [... ] and their being told of the punishment that would overtake them for the evil they did. No counsel was useful to them and no punishment led them to refrain from their disobediences. They paid no mind to censure lā bi-l-dhamm fīhim iḥtafalū and did not act according to what the situation required wa-lā bi-mūjibi al-amr ʿamilū.